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DEADLOCK In the multiprocessing, multithreaded environment, conditions can occur which produce a deadlock, a conflict of needs and allocations that stops all computing. For instance, suppose processes A and B share access to files X and Y, and assume the usual case that when a process opens a file for writing, the operating system gives that process an exclusive lock on the file. Process A opens file X for writing, and then tries to open file Y for writing. Process A cannot open file Y, however, because process B has file Y open for writing, so process A blocks. Then process B tries to open file X for writing. However, process B cannot succeed because process A already has file X open. Now both processes are blocked indefinitely. A deadlock has occurred; the processes are locked in a deadly embrace. Four conditions are necessary for deadlock to occur: 1 2 3 4 Mutual exclusion Hold and wait No preemption Circular wait
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By mutual exclusion, we mean that resources are allocated exclusively to one process or another (and throughout this discussion you can substitute thread for process ). If, in the example at the start of this section, the files had been opened in shared mode, mutual exclusion would not apply, and the deadlock would not occur. By hold and wait, we mean that a process can continue to hold exclusive access to a resource even as it waits to acquire another. If either process in the example had been compelled to release any file it had locked when it requested exclusive access to another file, the deadlock would not occur. By no preemption, we mean that the operating system will not force the release of a resource from a blocked process in order to satisfy a demand by another process. If, in the example, the operating system had forced blocked process A to release its control of file X in order to grant access to file X to process B, the deadlock would not occur. By circular wait, we mean that there exists some chain of processes waiting for resources such that one process waits for another, which waits for another, etc., until the last process waits for the first again. In the example, there are only two processes, and each waits for the other, so the circular wait is a short chain and easy to discern. If, on the other hand, process B blocked waiting for some resource held by process C, and C could eventually complete and release the resource required by process B, there would be no circular wait, and the deadlock would not occur. Deadlock prevention Deadlocks may be prevented by insuring that at least one of the conditions necessary for deadlock cannot occur. While this sounds straightforward at first, applying this idea is often impractical. Suppose one decides to do away with mutually exclusive access to resources What if two processes use the printer at the same time Some real-time systems allow such things to occur because the operating system is so simplified and streamlined for real-time performance that no provision is made for exclusive access to I/O devices. The result is that the lines of output from two simultaneously executing processes get intermingled, leading to unintelligible output on the printer. In the general case, one does not have the option of doing away with mutual exclusion. Suppose one decides to do away with hold and wait An alternative is to require a process to request in advance all the resources it will need during the course of its execution. If it receives all the resources it needs, it proceeds; if it cannot reserve everything at once, it blocks until it can. This approach can work, but at the cost of reduced efficiency. Suppose a long-running process requires a printer only at the end of its run; the printer will be unavailable to other processes in the meantime. Some systems, especially older mainframe systems, employ this design, but most modern systems do not, for reasons of efficiency. Suppose one decides to do away with no preemption Alternatives providing for preemption run into the same problems as alternatives doing away with mutual exclusion. For example, it usually won t make sense to take a printer away from a process that has blocked because it s waiting for a file. The resulting intermingling of output will fail the needs of both processes.
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