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Multilevel queues A simple example of multiple queues with different priorities is a system where processes are classified as interactive foreground processes and batch background processes. As long as there are foreground processes ready to run, the system uses RR to share the CPU among the foreground processes. Only when all the foreground processes terminate or are blocked does the system choose a process from among the background processes to run. To keep things simple and minimize context-switching overheads, the system might use FCFS to schedule the background tasks. Multilevel feedback queues A more complex and dynamic use of multiple queues of different priorities uses experience with the executing processes to move interactive processes to a higher-priority queue, and batch or CPU-bound processes to a lower-priority queue. A process which proves to be a heavy user of the CPU gets moved to a background queue, and a process which blocks often for I/O (and is likely, therefore, to be an interactive process) gets moved to a foreground queue. Foreground queues will use RR schedulers, and higher-priority foreground queues will use smaller timeslices. Background queues may be scheduled FCFS and background processes, when finally scheduled, may enjoy longer intervals of CPU time, so that once the low-priority jobs get the CPU, they can finish. Any specific implementation of a scheduler is usually based on a combination of scheduling strategies. For instance, traditional UNIX scheduling used multiple queues. System functions like swapping processes and manipulating files ran in higher-priority queues, and user programs ran in the user process queue. User process priorities were adjusted once a second. Processes that proved to be CPU-bound had their priorities lowered, and processes that proved to be I/O-bound had their priorities raised. The effect was to give preference to interactive processes, which were I/O-bound serving users at terminals (Stallings, William, Operating Systems: Internals and Design Principles, 5ed, Saddle River, NS, Prentice Hall, 2005). On the other hand, Hewlett Packard s Real-Time Executive (RTE) of the 1980s used a strictly priority-based real-time scheduler. There were 32,767 different priority levels (something of an over-supply of priority levels!), and whichever ready process had the highest priority was the one that was dispatched. MEMORY MANAGEMENT The operating system is responsible for assigning to processes memory in which to execute. In fact, the operating system is responsible for managing a whole array of memories in support of processes, principally main memory, cache memory, and disk memory. To set the stage for this discussion, recall that the computer must have a prepared sequence of machine language instructions before a program can be executed. The programmer writes in source code and submits the source code to the compiler. The compiler translates the source code to machine language, but since the compiler has no way of knowing which address in any particular computer is the first available address (lower memory may be occupied by operating-system code or another process), the compiler starts putting variables and instructions at address zero. The file the compiler creates is called a relocatable file, because the addresses in the file still need to be adjusted (relocated) before the code can be executed. One approach to adjusting the relocatable addresses is to have the loader add the offset of the first available memory location to all the addresses in the relocatable file. For example, if the compiler creates variable X at location 100, and the first available memory for a user program is at location 1112, then the loader can adjust the address of X in the executable file (machine code file) to be 1112 + 100. In early computers without multiprogramming capability, a process executable, or image, was first created by the loader. Then the image was loaded into memory, executed, terminated, and removed from memory. One could execute a second program only after the first was completed. MEMORY MANAGEMENT WITH MULTIPROGRAMMING With multiprogramming came more sophisticated memory management. More than one program could be in memory at one time, and it became important that an executing process did not change the contents of memory devoted to the operating system itself, or of memory belonging to another process.
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