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Since the process state at the time of the swap included the values of the registers and the values of the variables, the OS had to save the image of the executing process. Later, when the I/O completed, the OS could decide to bring the swapped process back into memory, and it was essential that the interrupted image be brought back. The OS could not bring in an original copy of the program from the original executable file, because the original executable file would not have the current values for the registers or variables. Most general-purpose operating systems today continue to use swapping as part of a more sophisticated virtual memory management capability. VIRTUAL MEMORY The concept of virtual memory further separated the concepts of logical address and physical address. The logical address is the address as known to the program and the programmer; the physical address is the actual address known to the computer memory hardware. The relocation register was the first mechanism we discussed by which a logical address (the relocatable address) was converted into a different physical address. Virtual memory completely separates the concepts of logical and physical memory. Logical addresses can be much, much greater than the maximum physical memory. With virtual memory, an entire program need not be in memory during execution, only the part of the program currently executing. Also, memory allocated to a program need not be contiguous, and instead can be scattered about, wherever available memory exists. Many advantages attend virtual memory and justify its complexity. Most importantly, programmers can ignore physical memory limitations. This greatly simplifies software development. Virtual memory also allows a greater degree of multiprogramming, which can improve CPU utilization. More processes can be in memory ready to run, because each process can occupy much less memory than its full program size would otherwise require. Virtual memory also facilitates sharing of memory between processes, for purposes of sharing either code or data. Virtual memory is implemented using demand paging or segmentation, or both. By far the more common approach is demand paging. Paging A paging system divides main memory, physical memory, into blocks called frames. The size of a frame is some power of 2 (for reasons that will become clear), and systems have implemented frames of sizes from 512 bytes to 64K. A typical size is 4K (1024 addresses in a system with a 32-bit, or 4-byte, word size). A paging system divides logical memory into pages of the same size as the frames. When the operating system needs to allocate memory to a process, it selects one or more empty frames, and maps the process pages to the frames by means of a page table. The page table for a process has an entry for each page in the process logical address space. When the process requires access to memory, the system inspects the logical address to determine which page it references. Then the system consults the page table entry for that logical page to learn what frame in physical memory the process is referencing. Finally, the system executes the reference to the proper physical memory location in the appropriate frame. Making the frame and page size a power of 2 speeds the process, because it means that the logical address can be conveniently split into two fields, a page number and an offset. The page number can become a quick index into the process page table, and the offset remains simply the address of the reference within the page/frame. For instance, if a 32-bit system (addresses are 32 bits long) has a frame size of 4K, it means that 12 bits of the address are required for the offset within the page (212 = 4096 bytes on a page). The low-order (least significant) 12 bits of the address become the offset, and the high-order (most significant) 20 bits become the page number. Suppose the process references memory location 1424. Since that number is less than 4096, the reference is to page 0, the first page. The number 1424 represented as a 32-bit binary number is the following (for readability, the address is broken into bytes, and the page number field is underlined): 00000000 00000000 00000101 10010000
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