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system, the OS clears the Referenced bit in every page table entry. The system also maintains a pointer, the clock hand, that points to one of the page table entries, and the system treats the page table as a circular list of pages. When a page fault occurs and one of the mapped pages must be replaced, the system checks the page table entry pointed to by the clock hand. If the Referenced bit for that page is 0, it means that the page has not been referenced since the last clock tick. In that case, that page of memory is written to the disk, if necessary (if it s dirty ), and that frame of memory is reallocated for the new page. On the other hand, if the Referenced bit for the page pointed to by the clock hand is 1, it means that the page has been accessed recently. Since recently accessed pages are more likely to be accessed in the near future, it would be unwise to replace a recently used page. So the clock algorithm sets the Reference bit for the page to 0, and moves to the next entry in the list. It continues in this manner until it finds an entry whose Referenced bit is 0, and in that case it reallocates the frame for new use with the new page. The clock algorithm is also called the second chance algorithm because sometimes a page comes up for a second chance to be sacrificed. If the Referenced bits are set for all pages, then the pointer eventually will point to the page it started with. Since it cleared the Referenced bit for this page the first time around, on the second chance the page will be selected for replacement. FILE SYSTEMS The file system is one of the most visible facilities of an operating system. Since the early days of operating systems, the OS has provided a permanent means to store information. A file collects related information together and provides access to the information via the name of the file. Over time, many file types have been developed to suit different purposes. Just as files organize information, file directories organize files. Today it seems almost beyond question that file directories should be of tree form, but that wasn t always true. File Types A widely used file type is the fixed-length record file. The file consists of records, or rows, each of which contains values for each of the fields of a record. This form was natural, especially in the days of punched cards. When one visualized a record, one saw in one s mind s eye a punched card. The card s 80 columns were divided into sets of columns (fields), where the values of the fields were punched. Such a conception of information storage seems natural for many purposes. Imagine your holiday greeting card list as a fixed-length record file, where each record represents a person, and each person record has a field for name, for street address, for city, etc. An advantage of fixed-length record files is that the system can easily calculate exactly where information exists. If the user requests the 3rd field from the 57th record, simple arithmetic will provide the exact location of the information. A problem with fixed-length record files is that often field values are naturally of varying length, and to make the file a fixed-length record file, the designer must make each field big enough to accommodate the largest value. Since most records do not need all the space, space will be wasted most of the time. Another file type is the variable-length record file. In this case, each record consists of the same set of fields, but the fields can be of varying length (including zero length). While a variable-length record file fits the use of storage to the data, its format must provide the information about the size of each field in each record. This wastes some space, and it adds an overhead during reading and writing. A special type of file is an indexed-sequential file. Its special structure is designed to promote fast searches of a large file. The records in the main file are sorted by the value of the key field. In addition, the file system associates with the main file a much smaller file of pointers to records in the main file. Suppose the indexed-sequential file contains records for a million people, and suppose that the key field, the field that uniquely identifies each record, is a social security number (SSN) field. The records in the file are ordered by SSN. Without indexing, finding any particular person would require, on average, reading 500,000 records (half of them). However, now suppose that the associated indexing file has 1000 entries; each entry consists only of a SSN and a pointer to the record in the main file with that SSN. To find a person, the system will read the indexing
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