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INTRODUCTION If you were to ask someone what invention of the 20th century had the most impact on the way in which people live their lives, a person might answer by saying, computers. Clearly the computer and the application of computing technology have had a significant impact on the lives of people. One of the technologies that has benefited from computing technology is communications. Today we take for granted the fact that almost all of the computing devices that we own are often connected together, exchange information, and function cooperatively to make our lives easier. A computer network is a group of computers that use common protocols to exchange information and share resources. The computers in a network communicate in a variety of ways. Some of the computers may communicate using electromagnetic signals transmitted over traditional copper wires or light being sent through fiberoptic cables. Others may communicate using radio, satellite, or microwaves. Two computers can communicate even if they are not directly connected. They can utilize a third computer to relay information. In the context of a computer network, a protocol is a formal description of the message formats and the rules the machines in the network follow to exchange messages. Think about using a telephone to communicate with a friend. There are two aspects to the call: establishing the connection that makes it possible to talk, and the rules, or the protocol, you use once the connection is established. Establishing the telephone connection consists first of dialing the number. Then the person you called answers, Hello, and then you say, Hi, this is George. Your connection is established. The protocol following a connection on the phone is for one person to speak, and then the other. If two people speak at once, we expect both to stop speaking, and then listen for the other to begin again, after a short interval. Computer protocols are sometimes quite analogous to such human behavior. Computer networks can be classified based on their size. A small network that connects computers contained in a single room, floor, or a single building is called a local area network (LAN). LANs have become very commonplace, and you may have a LAN in your home. A LAN is typically owned by an individual and connects computers that are relatively close together. A wide area network (WAN) covers a large geographical distance. For example a WAN may span several cities, several states, or an entire country. A WAN, unlike a LAN, is typically owned and maintained by an organization and has the capacity to carry large amounts of data. To understand the difference between a LAN and a WAN, consider for a moment the pipes that carry water to your house. Inside a typical home, water is carried in pipes that are from one-half to three-quarters of an inch in diameter. The pipes are part of the house, and if one springs a leak, the owner of the house is responsible for fixing the problem. The pipes buried under the street that supply the water to your house, however, are owned by the town in which you live and if they spring a leak, the town is responsible for making the repair.
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Furthermore these pipes are typically much larger (some may be more than a foot in diameter), and because they connect many homes, have the capacity to deliver more water than the pipes in your home. Computer networks that most people use on a daily basis appear to span the globe. In reality, most computer networks consist of smaller networks, which are in turn connected together to form larger networks. An internetwork, or Internet, is formed when two networks are connected together. In an internet the networks are not connected directly, but instead are connected using a computer that is connected to each of the individual networks. This common machine is referred to as a gateway or router, and passes information between the two networks. In this chapter we will take a look at computer networks. We will learn how they are organized, how they work, and some of the applications they can provide. REFERENCE MODEL As with any complicated technology, networks are often divided into a number of layers in order to make it easier to understand how they work and to make them easier to build. Each layer is responsible for a different part of the communication process. One of the advantages of using layers is that in order to use a layer you do not need to understand how it works inside, you simply need to know what services it provides and how to ask for them. For example, consider making a call on a cell phone. You only need to know how to make the call and how to speak into the phone. You do not have to understand the technical mechanisms that convert your voice into a form suitable for transmission using public airwaves. Several reference models have been developed to define a standard way to split the functionality of a network into a series of layers. This layered approach has resulted in casual talk of the network protocol stack. The reference model most commonly used in networking was developed by the International Standards Organization (ISO) and is called the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model, or the ISO OSI model (How s that for acronym reuse! ). The OSI model consists of seven layers as shown in Fig. 7-1.
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Figure 7-1 ISO OSI reference model. The physical layer is responsible for the transmission of a bit stream between two or more machines. You could think of the physical layer as a pipe through which individual bits flow. The basic objective of the physical layers is to make sure that when a 1 is sent, the other side receives a 1. The physical layer defines a medium through which messages can be sent. The services provided by the physical layer are not that different from the services provided by the post office. When you send a letter using standard first-class mail, the post office promises that it will attempt to deliver the letter, but it provides no guarantees. In most cases the letter will arrive at the intended destination, but there are times when the letter may be lost. In those cases where you require reliable mail delivery, you might send a letter using a higher-level service like registered mail. The data link layer uses the physical layer to provide reliable point-to-point delivery within a network. While the underlying physical layer may not be entirely error free, the data link layer transforms the connection into a facility that appears free of errors. It does this by means of error checking and retry mechanisms built into the protocol. Note that the term point-to-point means that the machines involved in the communication are directly connected. As long as the two computers are directly connected, one to the other, with no intervening computers, the data link layer provides a service similar to that when you send a letter via registered mail.
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