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The internet model contains only four layers, yet the widely used internet model also can be mapped to the more general OSI model: 1 The subnet (data link) layer of the internet model takes on the responsibility of both the physical and data link layers of the OSI model. In most computers, this layer is implemented by the firmware on the network interface card and the corresponding drivers in the operating system. 2 The internet (network) layer of the internet model provides computer-to-computer delivery using the internet protocol (IP), and it corresponds to the network layer of the OSI model. 3 The end-to-end (transport) layer of the internet model maps to the transport layer of the OSI model. The internet model implements reliable end-to-end communication over many intervening networks using the transaction control protocol (TCP). TCP insures that, even if parts of a message travel by different routes to the destination, the message will be reassembled in the correct sequence, and presented without duplication, omission, or corruption of data. 4 Finally, the application layer of the internet model subsumes the session, presentation, and application layers of the OSI model. As the name implies, application programs have responsibility for the application software layer. For instance, web browser applications have responsibility for formatting and displaying the data sent to them from distant web servers. Why has the internet model persisted in practice instead of being replaced by the more general and more layered OSI model A big part of the answer is that the internet model was implemented first, and users found that its model, though simpler, was successful. By the time the OSI model was widely promulgated, the internet model was already in wide use. The advantages of a more elaborate layering of services were not persuasive to those already successful with the existing protocols. Nevertheless, the OSI model persists as the best general description of networking services, and is frequently referenced in textbooks and research relating to networks. For our further discussion of the operation of different network layers and protocols, we will use the four-layer internet model because it is the model in wide use. Our goal in this chapter is to discuss how networking is actually implemented today. SUBNET (DATA-LINK) LAYER The responsibility of the subnet layer is to send and receive streams of bits between one machine and another. Computers transmit information by sending signals in the form of electromagnetic energy using some transmission medium. Computers that are connected using copper wires as the transmission medium will send signals in the form of electrical signals. Computers that are connected using fiber-optic cable will transmit signals in the form of light. Computers connected wirelessly broadcast and receive radio signals. Hardware at the physical layer generates signals of the appropriate type for the medium of transmission. Because of the layering architecture of the networking protocols, one subnet approach may be substituted for another. Thus, my laptop computer can use a wired Ethernet connection if one is available, or can instead use a wireless connection if a Wi-Fi network serves the location where I wish to compute. Most wired networks today use the Ethernet data link. Ethernet protocols were first developed at Xerox s Palo Alto Research Center in the 1970s. Today the descendent Ethernet data link is standardized in the IEEE 802.3 standard. The Ethernet protocol is interesting in its simplicity and its similarity to human speech interaction in groups. Ethernet uses a CSMA/CD protocol. The full description is carrier sense, multiple access/collision detection. Each computer on an Ethernet network attaches to the same wire. This is referred to as a bus architecture; each computer can listen to all signals on the wire; that s the multiple access part. When a computer wants to send information, the protocol requires the computer to listen to what s on the wire, waiting for a quiet time, before broadcasting; that s the carrier sense part. When a computer sends its message, it also listens to its own message. If the sender hears a jumbled mess instead of a clear message, it knows that another computer must have started broadcasting at exactly the same time; that s the collision detection part. When a sender detects a collision, the sender stops, and then waits a randomly chosen interval of time before trying again. Doesn t this sound like what humans do in group conversation When a person wants to speak, the person listens for a break in the conversation, and then begins. If the speaker hears interference from another voice, both people stop talking, and wait an interval of time before trying again to speak: CSMA/CD.
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