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The Wi-Fi connections popular today use standards specified in IEEE 802.11. IEEE 802.11 is actually a family of standards using different encoding and transmitting techniques, and different speeds, with a common protocol. Wi-Fi uses CSMA/CA, where CSMA still stands for carrier sense multiple access, but CA stands for collision avoidance. With wireless networks, it can be harder to detect collisions. If two computers are sharing a common Wi-Fi network, for example, both may be able to contact the access point, but one may not be able to detect the other, making collision detection difficult, even though simultaneous messages are garbled at the access point. Also, the radio environment may be naturally noisy, with cell phones and microwave ovens in the vicinity, for example, so collisions may be difficult to distinguish from normal noise. For these reasons, 802.11 standards adopt the CA approach where a sender first waits for the clear radio channel, and then sends a short request-to-send (RTS) message to the destination computer. When the receiver replies with a clear-to-send (CTS) message, the sender proceeds. This approach results in fewer collisions and less wasted time on retransmissions. Many other data-link standards exist. FDDI is a standard for computers linked with fiber-optic connections instead of wires. Token Ring is a standard that IBM popularized in the 1980s. Because the network protocols are layered, improvements in techniques for link-level connections can be adopted without disrupting the protocols that provide higher-level services. INTERNET (NETWORK) LAYER PROTOCOL An important higher-level service is that for the routing of messages between networks. When I send a message from my computer to my friend in the UK, the message must pass through many networks. Starting from my home network, the message must go to my internet service provider (ISP), which maintains connections with other ISPs and networks to enable my worldwide access. The routing of a message is the responsibility of the internet (network) layer protocol. The internet layer protocol is responsible for transporting a packet of data from one computer to another over possibly many intervening networks. When one computer sends a message to another, the internet layer protocol breaks the message into pieces (packets), and appends a header to each packet that identifies the destination computer as well as the source. The internet layer then passes the packet, called a datagram, to the data-link layer to be broadcast onto the local network. If the message is destined for a computer not attached to the local network, the router that connects the local network to another network will read the message. The router will rebroadcast the packet on the other network, and by such process repeating, the message will find its way through myriad intervening networks to its destination. The most popular network layer protocol is internet protocol (IP). Each computer attached to the internet has a unique IP address. Most IP addresses today are 32 bits long (called IP version 4). With the enormous growth in the use of the Internet, network experts see the need in the future for a larger address field in order to accommodate a much larger number of computers on the internet. A new standard IP address called IP version 6 has an address field 128 bits long. Over time, more computers will begin using IPv6. In any case, the IP protocol identifies both the source and destination computers by their IP addresses. You may be surprised that the IP protocol, on which we all depend, is specifically an unreliable protocol! IP simply builds datagrams and gives them to the link layer to send. The only error checking in the IP protocol uses a checksum in order to insure the header information has integrity. The checksum is a simple mathematical function of the bits in the header. Each receiver recomputes the checksum to make sure the checksum in the header matches. If the header is corrupted, the receiver simply discards the datagram! IP provides no checking whatever of the data in the datagram, so even if the header is intact, the data may be corrupted. Also, it s possible that a data link, router, or a computer will fail at a time when datagrams are being sent. Such failures will result in loss of the datagrams, and nothing in the IP protocol will do anything to recover such losses. Further, since failures in the network can result in dynamic changes to routes between networks, datagrams sent later may actually arrive sooner than datagrams sent earlier. Most of the time these problems don t occur. In fact, experiments over wired networks show amazing reliability most of the time. Error-testing devices often measure the bit error rate of networks in bits per billion sent! That s on the order of one to several errors per hour on a busy network. Nevertheless, to insure that datagrams all arrive, uncorrupted, in order, without duplication of datagrams, requires a higher-level protocol designed to
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