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An object like x is declared just like an ordinary variable. Its type is Rational. We can think of this type as a user-defined type. C++ allows us to extend the definition of the programming language by adding the new Rational type to the collection of predefined numeric types in t, f 1 oat, etc. We can envision the object x like this:
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Notice the use of the specifier Rational : as a prefix to each function name. This is necessary for each member function definition that is given outside of its class definition. The scope resolution operator : : is used to tie the function definition to the Rational class. Without this specifier, the compiler w o u l d not know that the function defined is a member function of the Rat ional class. This can be avoided by including the function definitions within declaration, as shown below in Example 8.2.
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When an object like the Rat ional object x in Example 8.1 is declared, we say that the class has been instantiated, and we call the object an instance of the class. And just as we may have many variables of the same type, we may also have may instances of the same class:
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Rational EXAMPLE 8.2 x, YI G
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A Self-Contained Implementation of the Rat ional Class
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Here s the same Rat ional declaration:
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class with the definitions of its member functions included within the
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class Rational { public: void assign(int n, int d) { num = n; den = d; } double convert0 { return double(num)/den; } void invert0 { int temp = num; num = den; den = temp; } void print0 { tout << num << '/' << den; } private: int num, den; 1;
In most cases, the preferred style is to define the member functions outside of the class declaration, using the scope resolution operator as shown in Example 8.1. That format physically separates the function declarations from their definitions, consistent with the general principle of information hiding. In fact, the definitions are often put in a separate file and compiled separately. The point is that application programs that use the class need only know what the objects can do; they do not need to know how the objects do it. The function declarations tell what they do; the function definitions tell how they do it. This of course is how the predefined types (int, double, etc.) work: we know what the result should be when we divide one float by another, but we don t really know how the division is done (i.e., what algorithm is implemented). More importantly, we don t want to know. Having to think about those details would distract us from the task at hand. This point of view is often called information hiding and is an important principle in object-oriented programming.
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CLASSES
When the member function definitions are separated from the declarations, as in Example 8.1, the declaration section is called the class intetiace, and the section containing the member function definitions is called the implementation. The interface is the part of the class that the programmer needs to see in order to use the class. The implementation would normally be concealed in a separate file, thereby hiding that information that the user (i.e., the programmer) does not need to know about. These class implementations are typically done by implementors who work independently of the programmers who will use the classes that they have implemented.
8.3 CONSTRUCTORS
The Rat ional class defined in Example 8.1 uses the assign ( > function to initialize its objects. It would be more natural to have this initialization occur when the objects are declared. That s how ordinary (predefined) types work:
int n = 22;
char* s = "Hello";
C++ allows this simpler style of initialization to be done for class objects using constructor functions. A constructor is a member function that is called automatically when an object is declared. A constructor function must have the same name as the class itself, and it is declared without return type. The following example illustrates how we can replace the ass ign ( ) function with a constructor.
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