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When an object is created, a constructor is called automatically to manage its birth. Similarly, when an object comes to the end of its life, another special member function is called automatically to manage its death. This function is called a destructor. Each class has exactly one destructor. If it is not defined explicitly in the class definition, then like the default constructor, the copy constructor, and the assignment operator, the destructor is created automatically.
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EXAMPLE 8.11 Including a Destructor in the Rat ional Class
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class Rational { public: Rational0 { tout << 'OBJECT IS BORN.\n";
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-Rational0 { tout cc "OBJECT DIES.\n"; }
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private: int num, den; >; main0 -t -C Rational x; tout << "Now x is alive.\n"; ) tout << "Now between blocks.\n"; Rational y; tout << Now y is alive.\&'; // beginning of scope for x // end of scope for x
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The output here shows when the constructor and the destructor are called.
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The class destructor is called for an object when it reaches the end of its scope. For a local object, this will be at the end of the block within which it is declared. For a s tat ic object, it will be at then end of the main ( > function. Although the system will provide them automatically, it is considered good programming practice always to define the copy constructor, the assignment operator, and the destructor within each class definition.
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CLASSES
8.9 CONSTANT OBJECTS It is good programming practice to make an object constant if it should not be changed. This is done with the const keyword:
const char blank = ' '; const int maxint = 2147483647; const double pi = 3.141592653589793; void init(float a[], const int size);
Like variables and function parameters, objects may also be declared to be constant:
const Rational pi(22,7);
However, when this is done, the C++ compiler restricts access to the object s member functions. For example, with the Rat ional class defined previously, the print ( > function could not be called for this object:
pi.print(); // error: call not allowed
In fact, unless we modify our class definition, the only member functions that could be called for const objects would be the constructors and the destructor. To overcome this restriction, we must declare as constant those member functions that we want to be able to use with const objects. A function is declared constant by inserting the cons t keyword between its parameter list and its body:
void print0 const { tout CC num C-C '/I C-C den -CC endl; } pi(22,7); // o.k. now
This modification of the function definition will allow it to be called for constant objects:
const Rational pi.print();
8.10 STRUCTURES The C++ c lass is a generalization of the C s true t (for structure ) which is a class with only pub1 ic members and no functions. One normally thinks of a class as a structure that is given life by means of its member functions and which enjoys information hiding by means of private data members. To remain compatible with the older C language, C++ retains the s true t keyword which allows s true ts to be defined. However, a C++ s true t is essentially the same as a C++ class. The only significant difference between a C++ s true t and a C++ class is with the default access specifier assigned to members. Although not recommended, C++ classes can be defined without explicitly specifying its member access specifier. For example,
class Rational { int num, den;
is a valid definition of a Rat ional class. Since the access specifier for its data members num and den is not specified, it is set by default to be private. If we make it a s true t instead of a class
struct Rational { int num, den;
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then the data members are set by default to be pub1 i C. But this could be corrected simply by specifying the access specifier explicitly:
struct Rational { private: int num, den;
So the difference between a class and a C++ s true t is really just cosmetic. 8.11 POINTERS TO OBJECTS In many applications, it is advantageous to use pointers to objects (and structs). Here is a simple example:
EXAMPLE 8.12 Using Pointers to Objects class X { public: int data; 1; main0 X* p = new X; (*p).data = 22; tout cc "(*p).data p->data = 44; tout cc " p->data
// equivalent to: p->data = 22; = ' << (*p).data CC ' = ' CC p->data << endl'; = ' CC (*p).data CC ' = ' CC p->data CC endl;
Since p is a pointer to an x object, *p is an x object, and ( *p > . data accesses its (pub1 i c) data member data. Note that parentheses are required in the expression ( *p) . data because the direct member selection operator . has higher precedence than the dereferencing operator * . (See Appendix . 0
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