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EXAMPLE 9.3 Implementation of the Assignment Operator for the Rational Class Rational& Rational: :operator=(const Rational& r)
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num = r.num; den = r.den; return *this;
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. Now assignments for the Rat ional
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Rational x, y, z(22,7); x = y = z;
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class can be chained together:
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The correct implementation for an overloaded assignment operator in a class
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T&i T: :operator=(const T& t)
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// assign each member datum of t to the // corresponding member datum of the owner return *this;
Finally, note that an assignment is different from an initialization, even though they both use the equals sign:
Rational x(22,7); Rational y(x); Rational z = x; Rational w; w = x; // this is an initialization // this is an initialization // this is an initialization // this is an assignment
An initialization calls the copy constructor. An assignment calls the assignment operator.
9.4 OVERLOADING ARITHMETIC OPERATORS
All programming languages provide the standard arithmetic operators +, -, *, and / for numeric types. So it is only natural to define these for user-defined numeric types like the Rat ional class. In older programming languages like C and Pascal, this is done by defining functions like this:
Rational product(Rationa1 x, Rational y) x.den*y.den);
Rational z(x.num*y.num, return z;
This works. But the function has to be called in the conventional way:
product(x,y);
C++ allows such functions to be defined using the standard arithmetic operator symbols, so that they can be called more naturally:
z = x*y;
OVERLOADING OPERATORS
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Like most operators in C++, the multiplication operator has a function name that uses the reserved word operator: its name is operator*". Using this in place of product" in the code above, we would expect the overloaded function to look something like this:
Rational operator*(Rational x, Rational y) x.den*y.den);
Rational z(x.num*y.num, return z;
But this is not a member function. If it were, we would have to set it up as in Problem 8.50, with only one argument. The operator * function requires two arguments. Since the overloaded arithmetic operators cannot be member functions, they cannot access the private member data num and den. Fortunately, C++ allows an exception to this rule so that we can complete our definitions of the overloaded arithmetic functions. The solution is to declare the function as afriend of the Rational class. A friend function is a nonmember function that is given access to all members of the class within which it is declared. So it has all the privileges of a member function without actually being a member of the class. This attribute is used mostly with overloaded operators.
EXAMPLE 9.4 Declaring the Multiplication Operator as a friend Function
Here is the Rat ional friend function:
class declaration with the overloaded multiplication operator declared as a
class Rational { friend Rational operator*(const Rational&, public: Rational(int =0, int =l); Rational(const Rational&); Rational& operator=(const Rational&); // other declarations go here private: int num; int den; // other declarations go here
const
Rational&);
Note that the function prototype is inserted inside the class declaration, above the pub1 note that the two arguments to the function are both passed by constant reference. Now we can implement this nonmember just as we had expected:
Rational operator*(const Rational& x, const Rational& -t Rational z(x.num * y.num, x.den * y.den); return z; y)
ic section. Also
Note that the keyword friend is not used in the function implementation. Also note that the scope resolution prefix Rat i onal : : is not used because this is not a member function.
Here is a little program that uses our improved Rational CkkSS:
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OVERLOADING
OPERATORS
EXAMPLE 9.5 The Rat ional Class with Assignment and Multiplication Operators #include main0 Rational x(22,7), y(-3,8), z; // assignment operator is called Z = x; tout =c< endl; z.print(); // multiplication operator is called x = y*z; x.print(); tout C-C endl; 1 22/7 -33/28 "Rationa1.h"
Note that the reduce ( ) function was called from within the overloaded multiplication operator to reduce -66/56 to -33/58. (See Example 8.2.) 9.5 OVERLOADING THE ARITHMETIC ASSIGNMENT OPERATORS
C++ allows your to combine arithmetic operations with the assignment operator; for example, using x * = Y in place of x = x * Y. These combination operators can all be overloaded for use in your own classes.
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