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for our Rat ional class, it is declared as
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Rational operator++();
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EXAMPLE 9.11 Adding a Pre-Increment Operator to the Rat ional Class
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This example adds an overloaded pre-increment operator + + to our Rat ional class. Although we can make this function do whatever we want, it should be consistent with the action that the standard preincrement operator performs on integer types. That adds 1 to the current value of the object before that value is used in the expression. This is equivalent to adding its denominator to its numerator:
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22+7 29 E+l = -=7 7 7
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So, we simply add den to num and then return * this9 which is the object itself:
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class Rational { const Rational&); friend ostream& operator<<(ostream&, public: Rational(int n=O, int d=l) : num(n), den(d) { > Rational operator++(); // other declarations go here private: int num, den; // other declarations go here > ;
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CHAP. 91
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OVERLOADING OPERATORS
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main0 Rational x(22,7), y = ++x; tout << "y = N << y << ', x = 'I CC x CC endl;
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Rational
Rational::operator++()
num += den; return *this;
Postfix operators have the same function name as the prefix operators. For example, both the pre-increment operator and the post-increment operator are named operator + +. To distinguish them, C++ specifies that the prefix operator has one argument and the postfix operator has two arguments. (When used, they both appear to have one argument.) So the correct syntax for the prototype for an overloaded post-increment operator is
T operator++(int);
The required argument must have type int. This appears a bit strange because no integer is passed to the function when it is invoked. The integer argument is thus a dummy argument, required only so that the postfix operator can be distinguished from the corresponding prefix operator.
EXAMPLE 9.12 Adding a Post-Increment Operator to the Rat ional Class
To be consistent with the ordinary post-increment operator for integer types, this overloaded version should not change the value of x until after it has been assigned to y. To do that, we need a temporary object to hold the contents of the object that owns the call. This is done by assigning * this to temp. Then this object can be returned after adding den to num.
class Rational { friend ostream& operator<<(ostream&, const Rational&); public: Rational(int n=O, int d=l) : numb), den(d) { > // pre-increment Rational operator++(); Rational operator++(int); // post-increment // other declarations go here private: int num, den; // other declarations go here > ; main0 -i Rational x(22,7), y = x++; tout -CC "y = H =c< y << ", x = H -SC x CC endl;
OVERLOADING OPERATORS
[CHAP. 9
Rational Rational::operator++(int) -i Rational temp = *this; num += den; return temp;
Y= 22/T,
x = 29/7
Note that the dummy argument in the operator+ + function is an unnamed int. It need not be named because it is not used. But it must be declared to distinguish the post-increment from the pre-increment operator.
OVERLOADING
SUBSCRIPT
OPERATOR
Recall that, if a is an array, then the expression a [ i ] really means nothing more than This is because a is actually the address of the initial element in the array, so a+i is the address of the ith element, since the number of bytes added to a is i times the size of each array element.
*(a+i).
The symbol [I denotes the subscript operator. Its name derives from the original use of arrays, where a [ i 1 represented the mathematical symbol ai . When used as a [ i 1, it has two operands: a and i. The expression a [ i 1 is equivalent to operator [ 1 (a, i > . And as an operator, [ ] can be overloaded.
EXAMPLE 9.13 Adding a Subscript Operator to the Rat ional Class <iostream.h> <stdlib.h>
#include #include
// defines the exit0 function
class Rational { friend ostream& operator<<(ostream&, const Rational&); public: Rational(int n=O, int d=l) : num(n), den(d) { int& operator[] (int); // other declarations go here private: int num, den; // other declarations go here > ; main0 Rational x(22,7); tout << "x = ' << x cc endl; tout << "x[l] = I << x[l] <<
x[2] = " << x[21
<< endl;
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