ssrs ean 128 CHAP. 91 in Software

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CHAP. 91
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int& {
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Rational: :operator[] (int i) if (i == 1) return num; if (i == 2) return den; cerr -c< "ERROR: index out of range\n"; exit(O);
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The expression x [ 1 ] calls the subscript operator, passing 1 to i, which returns x . num. Similarly, x [ 2 ] returns x . den. If i has any value other than 1 or 2, then an error message is sent to cerr, the standard error stream, and then the exi t ( ) function is called. This example is artificial. There is no advantage to accessing the fields of the Rat ional object x with x [ 1 ] and x [ 2 ] instead of x . num and x . den. However, there are many important classes where the subscript is very useful. (See Problem 9.14.) Note that the subscript operator is an access function, since it provides pub1 ic access to private member data.
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9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4
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Why can t the this pointer be used in nonmember functions Why should the overloaded assignment operator return * this What is the difference between the effects of the following two declarations: Rational y(x); Rational y = x; What is the difference between the effects of the following two lines: Rational y = x; Rational y; y = x;
9.7 Why can t * * be overloaded as an exponentiation operator
9.8 9.9 9.10
Why should the stream operators -CC and >> be overloaded as friend functions Why should the arithmetic operators
+, -9
*, and / be overloaded as friend functions
How is the overloaded pre-increment operator distinguished from the overloaded postincrement operator
9.11 Why is the int argument in the implementation of the post-increment operator left unnamed 9.12 What mechanism allows the overloaded subscript operator [ ]
to be used on the left side of an
assignment statement, like this:
v [ 2 ]
= 2 2
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[CHAP. 9
Solved Programming Problems
9.13 Implement the binary subtraction operator, the unary negation operator, and the less-than operator < for the Rational class (see Example 9.1). All three of these operators are implemented as friend and den data members of their owner objects: functions to give them access to the num
class Rational { friend Rational operator-(const Rational&, const Rational&); friend Rational operator-(const Rational&); friend int operator<(const Rational&, const Rational&); public: Rational(int =0, int =l); Rational(const Rational&); Rational& operator=(const Rational&); // other declarations go here private: int num, den; int gcd(int, int) int reduce(); > ; The binary subtraction operator simply constructs and returns a Rational object z that represents the difference x - y: Rational Rational: :operator-(const Rational& x, const Rational& y) x.den*y.den);
Rational z(x.num*y.den z.reduce(); return z;
y.num*x.den,
Algebraically, the subtraction a/b - c/d is performed using the common denominator bd:
a c ad-bc b-d = -a-
So the numerator of x - y shouldbe x.num*y.den - y . num*x . den and the denominator should be x . den*y . den. The function constructs the Rational object z with that numerator and denominator. This algebraic formula can produce a fraction that is not in reduced form, even if x and y are. For example, l/2 - l/6 = (1*6 - 2=1)/(2*6) = 4/12. So we call the reduce ( ) utility function before returning the resulting object z. The unary negation operator overloads the symbol - . It is distinguished from the binary subtraction operator by its parameter list; it has only one parameter: Rational Rational: :operator-(const -t Rational y(-x.num, x.den); return y; Rational& x)
To negate a fraction a/b we simply negate its numerator: (-a)lb. So the newly constructed object y has the same denominator as x but its numerator is -x.num.
Rational
CHAP. 91
OVERLOADING
OPERATORS
The less-than operator is easier to do if we first modify our default constructor to ensure that every object s den value is positive. Then we can use the standard equivalence for the less-than operator:
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