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A String CLASS
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EXAMPLE 10.1 Testing the Default Constructor
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This test driver invokes the default constructor twice: once with no parameter and once passing 4:
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#include main0
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'5'tring.h"
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String sl; tout << "sl = [" << sl << "1, String s2(4); tout cc " s 2 << s2 << "1,
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' -CC sl.length() ' -C-C s2.length()
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-CC endl; -C-C endl;
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The first object constructed, s 1, is the empty string. The second object, s 2, is a string of 4 blanks.
The second constructor creates a string of identical characters:
String: :String(char c, unsigned n) : -t buf = new char[len+l]; for (int i = 0; i < len; i++ ) buf [i] = c; buf[len] = '\O'; len(n)
First it uses an initialization list to assign n to the object s length field len. Then it uses the new operator to allocate n+l characters to the object s buffer array buf. The for loop assigns the same character c to each of the first n elements of the buf array. As always, the NUL character I\ o Iis assigned to the last element of the object s buffer.
EXAMPLE 10.2 Testing the Second Constructor
This test driver invokes the constructor twice: once with one parameter and once with two:
#include main0 String sl('B',l); tout << "sl = [" << sl << "1, length = ' CC sl.length() String s2('B',4); tout << "~2 = [" << ~2 CC "1, length = ' -CC sLlength() 5'tring.h"
C-C endl; << endl;
First it constructs the string s 1 containing a single character I B I . Then it constructs the string s2 containing four IB ' s.
A String CLASS
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The third constructor converts a C-string into a string object:
String: :String(const char* s)
len = strlen(s); buf = new char[len+l]; for (int i = 0; i < len; i++ > buf[i] = s[i]; buf[len] = '\O';
It uses the s trlen defined in the string . h header file to set the object s length field len to the length of the C-string S. Then it does the same things that the second constructor did, except that it copies the individual characters of s into the object s buffer.
EXAMPLE 10.3 Testing the Third Constructor
This creates the string object s 1 that represents the C-string " He1 lo, World ! " :
#include main0 String sl("Hello, World!"); tout << '31 = [" << sl << "1, "String.h'
length = ' -CC sl.length() << endl;
The string has 13 characters, including the comma, the blank, and the exclamation point (but not counting the NUL character I\ 0 I). Here is how we might visualize the object sl:
memory:
As usual, we use the symbol @ to represent the NUL character.
The destructor for our String class is typical:
String: :-String0 { delete [] buf;
It simply uses the delete operator to restore the memory that was allocated to the object. Note that the subscript operator [ ] must be specified because buf is an array.
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A String CLASS
THECOPYCONSTRUCTOR
In many class definitions, instead of defining a copy constructor explicitly, the one that is automatically provided by the compiler can be used. It simply does a direct copy of each corresponding data member. This, however, will not work properly for -our String class. The problem is that a direct memory copy would duplicate the buf pointer but not the string to which it points. This would result in having two different objects with the same member data. Consequently, we need to define our own copy constructor:
String: :String(const String& s) : len(s.len) -C buf = new char[len+l]; for (int i = 0; i < s.len; i++ ) buf[i] = s.buf[i]; buf[len] = '\O'; 1
This works the same way as the third constructor, except that the string s that it duplicates is an existing String object instead of a C-string. Also, we can use an initialization list to assign s . len to the new object s len field. That was not possible in the third constructor because we had to invoke a function (S trlen ( > ) to obtain the length of S.
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