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A String CLASS
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The output looks like this: name = [Charles Babbage] name[$J ft [Is] namef81 = fcj nae = &%ar&s3 Cabbage] .-_ : ,: _. '."..' '. : '.
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The only surprising result here is that the expression name [ 8 ] , which invokes the function, can be used on the left side of an assignment! This works because the expression is an Ivalue. (See Section 6.5.)
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The other access functions in our String class is the length ( >
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unsigned return String::length() len; const
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function:
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We have already tested the 1 eng th ( > function. (See Example 10.1.)
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10.9 THE COMPARISON OPERATORS
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We have overloads for all six of the comparison operators: = =, ! =, <, c =, >, and >=. Fortunately, all of these are already defined for C-strings in the string . h header file. So their implementation for our String class is trivial:
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#include int -t <string.h> String& sl, const String& s2)
operator==(const
return (strcmp(sl.buf,
s2.buf) == 0);
int 1 1
operator!=(const
String&
const
String&
return (strcmp(sl.buf, s2.buf) != 0);
int operator<(const String& sl, const String& s2) 1 return (strcmp(sl.buf, s2.buf) < 0);
int operator<=(const String& sl, const String& s2) -t return (strcmp(sl.buf, s2.buf) <= 0);
All six of these simply call the s trcmp ( > function defined in the string .,h header file. (See Table 7.2 on page 206.) It returns an integer whose sign indicates how the two C-strings compare: negative means that the first C-string lexicographically precedes the second; zero means that the two are equal; and positive means that the first lexicographically follows the second.
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A String CLASS
EXAMPLE 10.12 Testing the Comparison Operators
main0 1 String x, y; tout << "Enter two strings: "; if (x == y) Gout << "\t [ " << x if (x != y) tout << "\t[" << x if (x < y) COut << "\t[' << x if (x <= y) COut << "\t[" << x if (x > y) COut << "\t[' << x if (x >= y) COut << '\t[' << x
tin >> x >> y; << 'I] == [ I' << y << II] \,I1 ; << "1 != [" << y << "I\,"; << "I < ['I << y << "]\nI'<< "I <= [" << y << "1 in"; << "I > [" << y << "]\n'I<< "1 >= [I' << y -c< "]\n"II
10.10 STREAM OPERATORS
The stream operators overloaded for our string class are the stream insertion operator C-C and the stream extraction operator >>. We have already used these in several test drivers. Here are their implementations:
ostream& operator<<(ostream& { return ostr XX s.buf; > istream& operator>>(istream& 1 char buffer[256]; istr >> buffer; S = buffer; return istr; ostr, const String& s)
istr, String& s)
The overloaded stream insertion operator -CC simply inserts the object s buf into the output stream ostr and then returns that reference. The overloaded stream extraction operator >> uses a temporary buffer string to read the input, assigns it to the reference S, and then returns the istream reference istr. Note that both of these overloaded stream operators return the stream object that is passed to them. This makes these functions consistent with the corresponding predefined stream operators, allowing them to be invoked in cascades like this:
A String CLASS
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EXAMPLE 10.13 Testing the Stream Operators #include 3tring.h"
main0 { String sl, s2; tin >> sl >> s2; tout << sl << '****' CC s2 << endl;
This little program makes two calls to the overloaded insertion operator, two calls to the overloaded extraction operator, and two calls to the standard (predefined) extraction operator. The first call is operator>> (tin, sl) which passes areference to the istream object tin to theparameter istr and a reference to the string object s 1 to the parameter s. Then I He1 lo, I is read into the C-string temp. This is assigned to the String object sl, and then a reference to c in is returned. That return value is then used in the second call opera tar>> ( c in, s2 ) which works the same way, leaving the object s 2 representing I War 1 d ! I . ' The output line intermingles the two calls to the overloaded << operator with the two calls to the standard << operator in the cascade:
f( f( f( f( tout, sl ), ~****" ), s2 ), end1 );
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