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INTRODUCTION TO PROGRAMMING IN C++
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left. The left associativity of the output operator CC involved that have the same precedence level.
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is irrelevant because there are no other operators
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1.16 COMPOUND ASSIGNMENT EXPRESSIONS
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Increment and decrement operators abbreviate certain kinds of assignments. C++ also allows the assignment to be combined with other operators. The general syntax for these combined assignments is
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variable op= expression
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where
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is a binary operator. The effect of the combined assignment is the same as
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= variable op expression
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variable n += 8;
For example, the combined assignment has the same effect as the simple assignment
n=n+8;
It simply adds 8 to n.
EXAMPLE 1.20 Assignment Operators
This shows how to use some of the combined oDerators:
#include ciostream.h> // Tests combined operators: main0 -C int n = 44;
n +=9;
tout C-C n CC endl;
n II 5 ; -
tout CC n CC endl;
n *= 2;
tout << n CC endl; return 0; 1
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The statement n += 9 adds 9 to n, the statement n - = n *= 2 multiplies n by 2. 1.17 INTEGER OVERFLOW AND UNDERFLOW
5 subtracts 5 from n, and the statement
Unlike the integers of pure mathematics, the integer objects in a computer are bounded. As we saw above, each integer type has a maximum value and a minimum value. If the value of a variable exceeds either of its bounds, we have what is called overflow.
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INTRODUCTION TO PROGRAMMING IN C++
EXAMPLE 1.21 Testing for Overflow This program shows what happens when an object of type short overflows:
#include ciostream.h> #include climits.h> // Tests for overflow for type short: main0 short n = SHRT -MAX - 1; tout CC n++ CC endl; tout CC n++ CC endl; tout CC n++ CC endl; tout CC n++ CC endl; return 0;
The values wrap around the endpoints of 32,767 and -32,768. In other words, the value that results when 1 is added to 32,767 is -32,768. This is obviously wrong!
Most computers handle overflow this way. The values wrap around, so that the number that comes after the maximum value is the minimum value. This is the worst kind of error that can occur on a computer because normally there is no outside evidence that anything has gone wrong. As we shall see later, C++ fortunately provides mechanisms to help the programmer handle this problem. Overflow is one kind of a run-time error. Another common example is division by zero. But this is not as great a problem because you will know when it happens: the program crashes! Numeric overflow is like an internal hemorrhage: you may not be aware that you are in grave danger.
1.18 THE char TYPE
In C++, the character type char is one of the integer types. This means that any variable of type char may be used in integer expressions just like any other integer. For example, the integer arithmetic operators apply to char variables:
char c = 54; char d = 2*c - 7; c += d%3;
The name char is short for character. The name char is used because when variables of this type are input or output, they are interpreted as characters. Whenever a character is input, the system automatically stores its ASCII code (see Appendix A) as the value of the integer type char. And whenever a variable of type char is output, the system automatically sends the corresponding character to the output stream. This illustrated in the example below.
INTRODUCTION TO PROGRAMMING IN C++
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C++ defines three &bit integer types: char, signed char, and unsigned char. Butonly two of these are distinct. The type char will be either signed char or unsigned char, depending upon the computer. Use type char for ordinary characters. Use the type unsigned char for very short bit-string. The type signed char is not explicitly used very often; it would be a good choice if you needed to store a large quantity of very short integers that would not have to be output by means of the standard output operator <<.
EXAMPLE 1.22 Character Output
This shows how char
variables are output:
#include <iostream.h> // Tests output of type char: main0 char c = 64; tout << c++ << " "; tout << c++ << " "; tout << c++ << " "; tout << c++ << endl; c = 96; tout << c++ << " "; tout << c++ << " I'; tout << c++ << " "; tout << c++ << endl; return 0;
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