ssrs ean 13 A String CLASS in Software

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A String CLASS
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10.29 Implement and test the following member function for the string class:
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void reverseo;
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This function reverses the string. For example, it would transform the string
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lo.30 Implement and test the following member function for the String class:
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int isPalindrome();
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This returns 1 or 0 according to whether the string is a palindrome (i.e., it remains the same ispalindrome ("WASITELIOTSTOILETISAW') string when reversed). For example, would return 1 (for true ).
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lo.31
The String class implemented in this chapter would be inefficient for writing a text file or for any purpose that involved many instances of the same word (like I the " or I New York I ). This inefficiency can be reduced significantly by allowing many objects to share the same buf space in memory. However, using several pointers to point to the same data can cause problems. (See Questions Example 10.1 and Example 10.2.) These potential problems can be overcome by making the initial byte in buf a counter that keeps track of how many objects are using that buffer. For example, the declarations
String sl("France"), s2("Spain"), s3("France"), s4("France");
would be represented as:
memory:
Note that each string occupies len + 2 bytes in memory. Also note that the initial byte is storing an nonnegative integer as a char, so it must remain in the range 0 to 127. Modify the String implementation in this chapter to represent strings this way. The main changes have to be made to the constructors, the destructor, and the assignment operator.
10.32 Modify the String class so that the user can set or clear a case-sensitive switch. When the
switch is off, comparisons are made without regard to case, so that I NeXT lt and I next " would be regarded as equal strings. One way to implement this feature is to add the s tat i c data member
static int sensitivity;
and the s tat i c function member
static int setSensitivity();
A String CLASS
[CHAP. 10 .
Answers to Review Questions
10.1 If the second constructor had default values for both of its arguments, then a declaration like this
String s; would be ambiguous. Any constructor which has default values for all of its arguments is a default constructor, and a class may have only one default constructor. 10.2 The copy constructor that is automatically provided by the compiler merely duplicates the member data. This would result in different objects having their own (different) buf pointers, but they would point to the same C-string. That could be disastrous, for example, if one were changed or deleted. 10.3 See the answer to Question 10.2. 10.4 Our string class is more efficient when making comparisons. It is less efficient with its overloaded stream extraction operator >> which uses a 256-byte buffer. It would also be inefficient in a textprocessing environment because of the overhead of its constructors. (See Problem 10.3 1.)
11
Composition and Inheritance
11.1 INTRODUCTION We often need to use existing classes to define new classes. The two ways to do this are called composition and the inheritance. This chapter describes both methods and shows how to decide when to use them. 11.2 COMPOSITION Composition (also called containment or aggregation) of classes refers to the use of one or more classes within the definition of another class. When a data member of the new class is an object of another class, we say that the new class is a composite of the other objects.
EXAMPLE 11.1 A
Person Class
Here is a simple definition for a class to represent people.
#include Y3tring.h" a
class Person { public: Person(char* n="", char* nat=YJ.S.A.", int s=l) : name(n), nationality(nat), sex(s) { > void printName { tout << name; } void printNationality { tout << nationality; > private: String name, nationality; int sex; 1; main0 { Person creator('Bjarne Stroustrup', tout << 'The creator of C++ was "; creator.printName(); tout << ' who was born in '; creator.printNationality(); tout C< ".\n";
"Denmark");
COMPOSITION AND INHERITANCE
,[CHAP. 11
We have used the string class that was defined in 10 to declare the data members name and nationality for the Person class. Notice that we used the String class s overloaded insertion operator CC in the Person class s printName () function.
Example 11.1 illustrates the composition of the St ring class within the Person class. The next example defines another class that we can compose with the Person class to improve it:
EXAMPLE 11.2 A Date Class class Date { friend istream& operator>>(istream&, Date&); friend ostream& operatorcc(ostream&, const Date&); public: Date(int m=O, int d=O, int y=O) : month(m), day(d), year(y) { } void setDate(int m, int d, int y) { month = m; day = d; year = y; private: int month, day, year;
istream&
operator>>(istream&
in, Date& x)
in X= x.month X= x.day >> x.year; return in;
ostream&
operatorcc(ostream&
out, const Date& x)
static char* monthName[13] = {", "January", "February", "March", "April", "May", "June", "July", "August", "September", "October", "November", "December"}; out CC monthName[x.month] CC ' ' cc x.day CC ", ' CC x.year; return out;
main0 1 _ Date peace(ll,ll,l918); tout cc 'World War I ended on ' cc peace CC ".\n"; peace.setDate(8,14,1945); tout cc "World War II ended on ' CC peace CC ".\n"; tout << "Enter month, day, and year: "; Date date; tin >> date; tout cc "The date is ' CC date CC ".\n"; 1
CHAP. 1 l]
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