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class Fish : public Vertebrate { public: void eat(); // implemented specifically for Fish class elsewhere > ;
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The individual classes in a class hierarchy are designated as either abstract or concrete according to whether they have any pure virtual member functions. An abstract base class is a class that has one or more pure virtual member functions. An concrete derived class is a class that does not have any pure virtual member functions. In the example above, the Vertebrate class is an abstract base class, and the Fish class is a concrete derived class. Abstract base classes cannot be instantiated. The existence of a pure virtual member function in a class requires that every one of its concrete derived subclasses implement the function. In the example above, if the methods Vertebrate.eat(), Mammal. suckle 0, and Primate.peel() were the only pure virtual functions, then the abstract base classes ( ABCs ) would be Vertebrate, Mammal, and Primate, and the other 15 classes would be concrete derived classes ( CDCs ). Each of these 15 CDCs would have its own implementation of the eat ( > function, the 11 CDCs of the Mammal class would have their own implementation of the suckle ( ) function, and the 2 CDCs of the Primate class would have their own implementation of the peel ( > function. An ABC is typically defined during the first stages of the process of developing a class hierarchy. It lays out the framework from which the details are derived in the ABC s subclasses. Its pure virtual functions prescribe a certain uniformity within the hierarchy.
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EXAMPLE 11.13 A Hierarchy of
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Here is a hierarchy of classes to represent various media objects:
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Audio
Book
Periodical
CD Tape Record
Magazine
Journal Newsletter
Newspaper
The primary ABC is the Media class:
class Media { public: virtual void print0 =O; virtual char* id() =O; protected: String title; 1;
It has two pure virtual functions and one data member. Here is the concrete Book subclass:
class Book : Media { public: Book(String a=" ", String t=" ", String p='", String i=" ") isbn(i) { title = t; > : author(a), publisher(p), void print.0 { tout CC title << ' by ' << author << endl; } char* id() { return isbn; }; private: String author, publisher, isbn; > ;
COMPOSITION AND INHERITANCE
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It implements the two virtual functions using its own member data. Here is the concrete CD subclass:
class CD : Media { public: CD(String t=" ", String c=" ", String m=" 'I, String n=" I') : composer(c), make(m), number(n) { title = t; } void print0 { tout << title << ", " << composer << endl; } char* id() { return make + ' ' + number; }; private: String composer, make, number; 1;
The CD class will also be a CDC of the Audio class, which will be another ABC. So when the Audio class is defined, its pure virtual functions will also have to be implemented in this CD class. Here is the concrete Magazine subclass:
class Magazine : Media { public: Magazine(String t="", String i="", : issn(i), volume(v), number(n) { void print0 { tout << title << ' Magazine, CC volume << ", No." << char* id() { return issn; }; private: String issn, publisher; int volume, number;
int v=O, int n=O) title = t; } Vol. ' number GC endl; >
The Magazine class will also be a CDC of the Periodical class, which will be another ABC. So when the Periodical class is defined, its pure virtual functions will also have to be implemented in this Magazine class. Here is a test driver for the four classes defined above:
main0
. Language",
Book book("Bjarne Stroustrup", "The C++ Programming "Addison-Wesley", "0-201-53992-6"); Magazine magazine("TIME", "0040-781X", 145, 23); CD cd("BACH CANTATAS", "Johann Sebastian Bach", "ARCHIV", "D120541"); book.print(); tout c< '\tid: ' <c book.id() << endl; magazine.print(); tout c< "\tid: ' << magazine.id() << endl; cd.print(); tout c< "\tid: fl C< cd.id() << endl;
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