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COMPOSITION AND INHERITANCE
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Note that all the calls to the print ( ) and id ( ) functions are independent of their class implementations. So the implementations of these functions could be changed without making any changes to the program. For example, we could change the Book : : print ( > function to
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void print0 { tout << title << " by ' << author << ".\nPublished by 'I <-K publisher <<
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11.10 OBJECT-ORIENTED PROGRAMMING Object-oriented programming refers to the use of derived classes and virtual functions. A thorough treatment of object-oriented programming is beyond the scope of this book. See the books [Bergin], [Perry], and [Wang] listed in Appendix E for a more thorough treatment. Suppose that you have three televisions, each equipped with its own video cassette recorder. Like most VCRs, yours are loaded with features and have confusing user manuals. Your three VCRs are all different, requiring different and complex operations to use them. Then one day you see on the shelf of your local electronics store a simple remote controller that can operate all kinds of VCRs. For example, it has a single RECORD button that causes whatever VCR it is pointed at to record the current TV program on the current tape. This marvelous device represents the essence of object-oriented programming ( OOP ): conceptual simplification of diverse implementations by means of a single inteeace. In this example, the interface is the remote controller, and the implementations are the (hidden) operations within the controller and the individual VCRs that carry out the requested functions ( RECORD , STOP , PLAY , etc.). The interface is the abstract base class below:
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class VCR { public: virtual virtual virtual virtual virtual >:
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on() =O; off0 =O; record0 =O; stop0 =O; play0 =O;
COMPOSITION AND INHERITANCE
[CHAP. 11
and the implementation s are the concrete derived classes below:
class Panasonic : public VCR { public: void on(); void off(); void record(); void stop(); void play(); > ;
class Sony : public VCR public: void on(); void off(); void record(); void stop(); void play(); >;
class Mitsubishi : public VCR { public: void on(); void off(); void record(); void stop(); void play();
One important advantage of object-oriented systems is extensibility. This refers to the ease with which the system can be extended. In the example above, the VCR controller would be called extensible if it automatically works the same way on new VCRs that we might add in the future. The controller should not have to be modified when we extend our collection of VCRs, adding a Toshiba or replacing the Sony with an RCA. In the object-oriented programming, we imagine two distinct points of view of the system: the view of the consumer (i.e., the client or user) that shows what is to be done, and the view of the manufacturer (Le., the server or implementor) that shows how it is to be done. The consumer sees only the abstract base class, while the manufacturer sees the concrete derived classes. The customer s actions are generally called operations, as opposed to the manufacturer s implementations of these actions which are called generally methods. In C++, the actions are the pure virtual functions, and the methods are their implementations in the concrete derived classes. In this context, the abstract base class (the user s view) is called the system inteqace, and the concrete derived classes (the implementor s view) are called the system implementation: This dichotomy is most effective when we use pointers to objects, as in Example 11.13. Then we can exploit dynamic binding make the system interface even more independent from the system implementation. Extensibility is facilitated by the fact that only the newly added methods need to be compiled.
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