ssrs pdf 417 STREAM I/O in Software

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EXAMPLE 12.7 Using tout . set f ( ) with a Format Mask to Set a Stream s Format Flags
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This example is the same as Example 12.4 except that set f ( ) main0 int n = 234; cout.setf( ios::hex I ios::uppercase I tout CC n CC endl; cout.setf( ios::oct, ios::basefield >; tout -CC n << endl;
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is called instead of flags ( > .
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: This is the correct way to change radix. To change from hexadecimal to octal, both the oc t flag has to be set and the hex flag cleared. The second call to tout . setf does that.
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12.4 ios STATE VARIABLES Every stream has a -S tat e data member that is defined in the ios class. Like the -flags member, the - state member is a bit string that holds several boolean variables. These state variables are specified in the enum definition:
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class ios { public: enum { goodbit = 0, eofbit = 01, failbit = 02, badbit = 04
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// // // // //
values for error state flag: all ok end of file last operation failed invalid operation
// other members included here
A stream s format flags can only be changed explicitly, and only by means of the ios access functions described below. In contrast, a stream s state variables are changed implicitly, as a result of I/O operations. For example, when a user inputs Control-D (or Control-Z on DOS and VAX computers) to indicate end-of-file, the tin's eofjlag is set, and we say that the stream is in an eof state. By adding the numeric values for the flags that are set, we obtain the complete io state setting for the stream object in a single S-bit number. For example, the x object shown above has the octal value o for its - state data member. This number decomposes as
03 = 02 + 01
which indicates that two flags are set: the fai lbi t (02) signaling that the last operation failed (because input was at the end-of-file), and the eof bi t (0 1). ' A stream s four state variables (goodbit, eofbit, failbit, and badbit) can be accessed individually by their access functions (good ( > , eof ( > , fail ( > , and bad ( > ). They can also be accessed collectively by the rds tat e ( > function, as demonstrated by the next example.
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STREAM I/O
EXAMPLE 12.8 Testing the rdstate ( ) Function main0
tout << "cin.rdstate() int n; tin >> n; tout << "cin.rdstate() 1 = I1 -C-C cin.rdstate() -C-C endl;
= 'I -CC cin.rdstate() -C-C
endl;
cin.rdstate() 32 @in-rdstate() ein.rdstate() Axl cin.kdstate()
= Q = 0 = 0 = 3
On the second run, the user pressed Control-D (or Control-Z on a PC or a VAX) to signal end-of-file. This sets tin's eofbi t and f ailbi t, which have numeric values 1 and 2, making the (total) value of the state variable 3. -
The state variables can set be means of the set ( > function the same way that the singleargument set f ( ) function is used to set format flags. However, state variables are generally used only to read the current state of the stream, so it is unlikely that you would want to change them directly. The following two access functions are used to test the state of the stream within a conditional expression:
class ios {
public: operator void*() const; int operator!0 const; // other members included here // conversion operator
The first of these is a conversion operator. It returns a pointer that is NULL (i.e., 0) if -state is nonzero and -1 otherwise. So for example, if in is an input stream, then the expression ( in) will evaluate to true if none of the flags are set (i.e., there is still more input), and false otherwise. The second of these access functions overloads the negation operator. It simply calls fail ( ) and returns its return value, which will be nonzero unless both the f ailbi t and the badbi t are clear. The advantage of this alternate form for determining whether the stream can be used any more is that, like the conversion operator above, this form can be used conveniently in conditional expressions. For example, if out is an output stream, then the expression ( ! out > will evaluate to true if either the f ai lbi t or the badbi t is set (i.e., the out stream will not function any more), and false otherwise.
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