ssrs pdf 417 STREAM I/O in Software

Drawer Quick Response Code in Software STREAM I/O

STREAM I/O
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EXAMPLE 12.9 Using the Conversion Operator operator void* ( ) to Control a Loop main0 { int n, sum=O; tin >> n; while (tin) { sum += n; tin >> n; tout -x "sum =
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// loop will continue as long as -state == 0
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-CC sum -CC endl;
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Using Control-D (or Control-Z) to terminate input is simple and convenient. Pressing this key sets the eof bi t in the input stream. But then, if you want to use it again in the same program, it has to be cleared first. This is done with the member function clear ( ) , as shown below:
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EXAMPLE 12.10 Using the clear ( ) Function to Clear the eofbit main0 int n, sum = 0; while (tin >> n) sum += n; tout -cc "The partial sum is ' -CC sum C-C endl; cin.clear(); while (tin >> n) sum += n; tout << "The total sum is I1 -CC sum CC endl;
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When the end-of-file is detected as a result of the Control-D, tin's eofbi t and f ailbi t are set, and the expression ( tin >> n) returns 0. This stops the first loop and prints the partial sum. Then the call to c in. clear ( ) resets the eo f bi t to 0 (i.e., clears it), so that the second whi 1 e loop can execute properly. Warning;: o t w o k m a y nThis use of rtouto n clear e( ) o l d e r . som Microsoft Turbo C++). compilers (e.g., version 4.5 of
The ios class s - tie member is used to tie an input stream to an output stream. When an input stream is tied to an output stream, the output stream is flushed automatically whenever an operation is attempted on the input stream. This means that user prompts will work normally:
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STREAM I/O
EXAMPLE 12.11 Using tin. tie ( )
to Break and Reconnect the Tie of tin to tout
main0
tout << "Press cin.get(); tout -c-c "Thank cin.tie(O); tout << "Press cin.get(); tout << "Thank cin.tie(&cout); tout << "Press cin.get(); tout << "Thank Press Thank Press Press any key to continue:"; you." -CC endl; // this breaks the tie of tin to tout any key to continue:"; C-C
you."
endl; // this reconnects the tie of tin to tout any key to continue:"; endl; _ yoz~.. "
you." -C-C
any key to continue:x yau. j any key to cuntinue:Thank E%ny key. to contknue:x
Thank you. In the first I/O exchange, tout is flushed to prompt the user for a response, even though no end1 or I \n I is passed to it. But then the call tin. tie (0) breaks tin's tie to tout, so in the next I/O exchange the prompt does not wait for input before the next line is output. The call tin. tie (6;cout ) finally restores the tie, so that the third I/O exchange works normally again.
12.5 THE istreamANDostream
CLASSES
The istream and ostream classes both inherit from the ios class:
class istream : virtual public ios { // . . . }; class ostream : virtual public ios { // . . . };
Making ios a virtual base class facilitates the multiple inheritance that the ios tream class has from both the is tream and os tream classes by preventing multiple copies of the ios class to be made for the iostream class. The is tream class defines the tin object and the stream extraction operator >> for formatted input. The ostream class defines the tout, cerr, and clog objects and the stream insertion operator < < for formatted output. These objects and operators are inherited by the seven subclasses shown in the diagram on page 328. The familiar I/O operations that use the extraction and insertion operators are called formatted Z/O because these operators recognize the types of the objects that are accessed and they for-n-rat the data accordingly. For example, if n is an integer with value 22, then tout -C-C n prints the value 22 in integer format. The is tream and ostream classes also define a set of member functions for unformatted Z/O that handles data simply as a sequence of bytes. These functions are described below and are summarized in Appendix F.
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