ssrs pdf 417 STREAM I/O in Software

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The is tream class defines the stream extraction operator >> which reads data from objects, which are usually the standard input device tin (Le., the keyboard). If successful, this operator returns a reference to the object so that calls can be chained like this:
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istream tin >> x >> y >> z;
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If tin is unsuccessful, it returns 0. Under normal operation, tin skips white space characters (blanks, tabs, newlines, etc.).
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EXAMPLE 12.12 Simple Use of the Extraction Operator main0 int m, n; float t; tin >> m >> t >> n; tout -c-c I m = 1 -cc m -cc I,
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c-c t << , n = I' KC n -CC endl;
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The >> operator will return 0 when it encounters the end-of-file character, transmitted by Control-D on UNIX workstations and Macintoshes and by Control-Z on PCs and VAX/VMS computers. This can be used to control an input loop:
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EXAMPLE 12.13 Controlling an Input Loop
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main0 1 int n, sum = 0; while (tin >> n) sum += n; tout << "The sum is 'I cc sum x-c endl;
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12.6 UNFORMATTED INPUT FUNCTIONS The is t ream class defines a rich collection of unformatted input functions. Many of these are summarized in Appendix F. Several versions of the get ( > function are defined by the is tream class. In its simplest form, it has no arguments and simply returns the next character in the input stream. Its function prototype is
int get();
This version of the function is typically used in an input loop:
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EXAMPLE 12.14 Reading Characters with the tin . get ( ) Function
Compare this with Example 7.6:
main0 char c; while ((c = cin.get()) != EOF) tout << c; tout -CC endl;
Each call of the c in. get ( ) function reads one more character from c in and returns it to the variable c. Then the statement inside the loop inserts c into the output stream. These characters accumulate in a buffer until the end-of-line character is inserted. Then the buffer is flushed, and the complete line is printed just as it had been read. The expression (c = cin.get ( > > returns the value that is returned by the function call * tin . get ( > . That value is compared with the integer constant EOF, and as long as they are unequal the loop continues. When the end-of-file character *D is read, tin . get ( ) > returns the value of EOF, thereby terminating the loop.
On most computers,
has the value -1:
EXAMPLE
12.15 The Integer Constant EOF
main0 tout << "EOF = ' cc EOF cc endl;
char
Another form of the get ( > function reads the next character from the input stream into its parameter that is passed by reference:
istream& get(char& c);
This version returns false when the end of file is detected, so it can conveniently be used to control an input loop like this: while (cin.get(ch))
EXAMPLE 12.16 Reading Characters with the
STREAM I/O tin . get ( ) Function function:
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This is the same as Example 12.14, except using this form of the get ( )
main0 char c; while (cin.get(c)) tout << c; tout -CC endl;
A third form of the get ( ) function is similar to the getline ( ) function. Its prototype is
istream& get(char* bu,ffer, int n, char delim = '\n');
This reads characters into buffer until either n-l characters are read or the de1 im character is encountered, whichever comes first. It does not extract delim from the input stream.
EXAMPLE 12.17 Reading Characters with the
tin . get ( ) Function
main0 char buffer[80]; cin.get(buffer, 8); // reads next 7 characters into tout << " [ " -CC buffer CC "]\n"; cin.get(buffer, sizeof(buffer)); tout cc " [ " CC buffer CC "]\n"; cin.get(buffer, sizeof(buffer), I I I); tout << " [ " CC buffer CC "]\n";
buffer
The first call tin . get (buffer , 8 ) reads the 7 characters IIABCDE I F I into buffer and then cin.get(buffer, 80) reads terminates the string with the null character \O .Thesecondcall
the rest of the characters on the line, up to but not including the end-of-line character \n '. These 24 characters which appended with the null character I\ 0 I are read in to bu f f er. The third call cin.get(buffer, 80, I I I ) reads the end-of-line character from the first input line, followed by the 5 characters I ABCDE I that precede the I 1 I character on the second line; these 5 characters, appended with the null character I\ 0 I, are read in to buf f er.
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