ssrs qr code void swap(int& m, int& n) { int temp = m; m = n; n = temp; > in Software

Creator QR Code in Software void swap(int& m, int& n) { int temp = m; m = n; n = temp; >

void swap(int& m, int& n) { int temp = m; m = n; n = temp; >
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If however, we were sorting String objects, then we would need a different function:
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void swap(String& sl, String& s2)
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String temp = sl; sl = s2; s2 = temp;
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These two functions do the same thing. Their only difference is the type of objects they swap. We can avoid this redundancy by replacing both functions with a function template:
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TEMPLATES
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ITERATORS
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[CHAP. 13
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EXAMPLE 13.1 The swap
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Function Template
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t e m p l a t e <class
void swap(T&
x, T& y)
T temp = x; x = y; y = temp;
The symbol T is called a type parameter. It is simply a placeholder that is replaced by an actual type or class when the function is invoked.
A function template is declared the same way as an ordinary function, except that it is preceded by the specification
template <class T>
and the type parameter T may be used in place of ordinary types within the function definition. The use of the word class here means any type. More generally, a template may have several type parameters, specified like this:
template <class T, class U, class V>
Function templates are called the same way ordinary functions are called:
int m = 22, n = 66; swapb, n> ; String sl = "John Adams", s2 swap(s1, ~2); Rational x(22/7), ~(-3); swank Y> ;
= "James Madison";
For each call, the compiler generates the complete function, replacing the type parameter with the type or class to which the arguments belong. So the call swap (m, n > generates the integer swap function shown above, and the call swap ( ~1, ~2 > generates the swap function for String class. Function templates are a direct generalization of function overloading. We could have written several overloaded versions of the swap function, one for each type that we thought we might need. The single swap function template serves the same purpose. But it is an improvement in two ways. It only has to be written once to cover all the different types that might be used with it. And we don t have to decide in advance which types we will use with it; any type or class can be substituted for the type parameter T. Function templates share source code among structurally similar families of functions. Here is another example of a function template:
CHAP. 131
TEMPLATES AND ITERATORS
EXAMPLE 13.2 The Bubble Sort Template This is the Bubble Sort and a print function for vectors of any base type. (The defined in 10.)
#include "String.h" String class is
template<class T> void sort(T* v, int n) T temp; for (int i = 1; i < n; i++) for (int j = 0; j < n-i; j++)
(v[jl > v[j+ll> swapbdjl,
v[j+U);
template<class T> void print(T* v, int n) 1 for (int i = 0; i < n; i++) tout << I' ' c-c v[i]; tout << endl;
main0 short a[91 = (55, 33, 88, 11, 44, 99, 77, 22, 66); print(a,9); sort(a,9); print(a,9); String s[7] = {'Tom", "Hal", "Dan", "Bob", "Sue", "Ann", print(s,7); sort(s,7); print(s,7); 1
"Gus"};
Here, both sort ( ) and print ( ) are function templates. The type parameter type short in the first calls and by the class String in the second calls.
is replaced by the
A function template works like a macro. The compiler uses the template to generate each version of the function that is needed. In the previous example, the compiler produces two versions of the sort ( ) function and two versions of the print ( > function, one each for the type short and one each for the class string. The individual versions are called instances of the function template, and the process of producing them is called instantiating the template. A function that is an instance of a template is also called a template function. Using templates is a form of automatic code generation; it allows the programmer to defer more of the work to the compiler.
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