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TEMPLATES AND ITERATORS
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[CHAP. 13
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Vectoxxshorb Vector0 Vector0
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-Vector0 operator=0 operator[] (1 size0 \C O P Y 0 )
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Class templates are also called parametrized types because they act like types to which parameters can be passed. For example, the object b above has type Vector<double>, so the element type double acts like a parameter to the template Vector<lT>.
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13.5 SUBCLASS TEMPLATES
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Inheritance works with class templates the same way as with ordinary class inheritance. To illustrate this technique, we will define a subclass template of the Vet tor class template defined in Example 13.4.
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EXAMPLE 13.5 A Subclass Template for Vectors
One problem with the Vet t or class as implemented by the template in Example 13.4 is that it requires zero-based indexing; i.e., all subscripts must begin with 0. This is a requirement of the C++ language itself. Some other programming languages allow array indexes to begin with 1 or any other integer. We can add this useful feature to our Vet tor class template by declaring a subclass template:
template <class T> class Array : public Vector<T> { public: Array(int i, int j) : iO(i), Vector<T>(j-i+l) { } Array(const Array<T>& v) : iO(v.iO), Vector<T>(v) { } T& operator[] (int i) const { return Vector<Tx:operator[] (i-i0); > int firstSubscript const { return i0; } int lastSubscript const { return iO+sz-1;
protected: int i0; >; This Array class template inherits all the functionality of the Vet tor class template and also allows subscripts to begin with any integer. The first member function listed is a new constructor that allows the user to designate the first and last values of the subscript when the object is declared. The second function is the copy constructor for this subclass, and the third function is the overloaded subscript operator. The last two functions simply return the first and last values of the subscript range.
CHAP. 131
TEMPLATES
ITERATORS
Note how the two Arrav constructors invoke the corresponding Vector constructors, and how the Arrav subscr$t operator invokes the Vet t or subscriptloperat&
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Here is a test driver and a sample run:
#include <iostream.h> #include "Array.h" main0
Array<float> x(1,3); x[l] = 3.14159; x[2] = 0.08516; x[3] = 5041.92; tout << "x.size() = ' -CC x.size() tout << "x.firstSubscript() = " C-K tout << "x.lastSubscript() = " -CC for (int i = 1; i <= 3; i++) tout -C-C "x[' -CC i C-C "1 = " <<
-CC endl; x.firstSubscript() -CC endl; x.lastSubscript() -CC endl; x[i] -C-C endl;
x.size() = 3 x.firstSubscript() x.lastSubscript() x[l] = 3.14159 xf2f = 0.08516 xf3] = 5041.92
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TEMPLATES AND ITERATORS
[CHAP. 13
13.6 PASSING TEMPLATE CLASSES TO TEMPLATE PARAMETERS We have already seen examples of passing a class to a template parameter:
Stack<Rational> s; Vector<String> a; // a stack of Rational objects // a vector of String objects
Since template classes work like ordinary classes, we,can also pass them to template parameters:
Stack&ector<int>> s; Array<Stack<Rational>> / EXAMPLE 13.6 A a; // a stack of Vector objects // an array of Stack objects
The next example shows how this template nesting can facilitate software reuse. Matrix Class Template
A matrix is essentially a two-dimensional vector. For example, a 2-by-3 matrix is a table with 2 rows and 3 columns: We can think of this as a 2-element vector, each of whose elements is a 3-element vector:
The advantage of this point of view is that it allows us to reuse our Vet t or class template to define a n e w Matrix class template. To facilitate the dynamic allocation of memory, we define a matrix as a vector of pointers to vectors:
Vector<Vector<T>*>
We are passing a class template pointer to the template parameter indicated by the outside angle brackets. This really means that when the Matrix class template is instantiated, the instances of the resulting class will contain vectors of pointers to vectors.
template<class T> class Matrix { public: Matrix(unsigned r=l, unsigned c=l) : row(r) { for (int i=O; i<r; i++) row[i] = new VectorcT>(c); } -Matrix0 { for (int i=O; i<row.size(); i++) delete row[i]; > Vector<T>& operator[] (unsigned i) const { return *row[i]; } unsigned rows0 { return row.size(); } unsigned columns0 { return row[O]->size(); } protected: VectorcVectorcT>*> row;
Here the only data member is row, a vector of pointers to vectors. As a vector, row can be used with the subscript operator: row [ i ] which returns a pointer to the vector that represents the ith row of the matrix. The default constructor assigns to each row [ i ] a new vector containing c elements of type T. The destructor has to de 1 et e each of these vectors separately. The rows ( ) and columns() functions return the number of rows and columns in the matrix. The number of rows is the value that the member function size ( ) returns for the Vet tor<Vec tor<T>*> object row. The number of columns is the value that the member function s i ze ( > returns for the Vet tor<T> object *row [ 0 ] , which can bereferencedeitherby (*row[O]).size() orby row[O]->size().
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