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EXAMPLE 14.4 Using the c s tdl ib . h> and et
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This shows how to use the system clock to set the seed for the random number generator:
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#include #include #include <iostream.h> <stdlib.h> <time.h>
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main0 -t unsigned seed = time(NULL); srand(seed); for (int i = 0; i < 32; i++) tout -CC 1 + rand()%6 << ' "; tout << endl;
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The call time (NULL > returns, the number of seconds that have elapsed in the twentieth century. By passing this integer to srand ( > , we ensure that each time the program is run it begins with a different seed. Thus each of the three runs produces a different sequence of 32 random numbers. The expression 1 + rand ( > % 6 generates random integers in the range 1 to 6, simulating the toss of a die. Note that some predefined rand ( ) functions do not give very satisfactory results. For serious simulation, one should implement one s own random. See Problem 8.21.
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The c s tr ing . h> header file defines a large number of very useful functions for manipulating null-terminated arrays of characters. These are described in 10. The <math. h> header defines mathematical functions such as the following:
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double sin(double x); // sine double atan(double x); // arctangent double cosh(double x); // hyperbolic cosine , double pow(double x, double y); // x to the power y double exp(double x); // e t9 the power x double log(double x); // natural logarithm (base e) double loglO(double x); // common logarithm (base 10) double sqrt(double x); // square root of x double ceil(double x); // least integer >= x double floor(double x); // greatest integer <= x double fabs(double x); // absolute value for reals <s tddef . h> header defines some special constants and types: #define NULL ((void*) 0) // null pointer typedef char wchar-t; // wide character type typedef unsigned size-t; // size type
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Note the use of the preprocessor directive #define. This is the way constants are defined in C. Different compilers may have different definitions for the wide character and size types. Wide characters are used to accommodate large character sets, such as the Chinese character set. The s i z e- t type is used with certain library functions, such as the s tr 1 en ( > function defined in the <string . h> header file. The -C s tdio . h> header file defines the non-stream I/O functions used by C programmers. For example, the scanf ( > and printf ( > functions are used for formatted input and output.
14.5 STRING STREAMS
We have named the second group of header files that comprise the Standard C++ Library the C++ headers. These contain the C++ definitions that completed the draft C++ Standard before the Standard Template Library was included. Nine of these twenty headers are devoted to the stream processing that is described in 12. In this section we expand that study with a brief survey of string streams defined in <S trs treamx The following section describes how file processing is managed using the file streams defined in < f streamx The -C s trs tream> header file defines three classes that allow the use of string streams in C++. A string stream is a stream that exists only during the execution of the program in which it is defined. String streams are also called an in-memory character sequences and internal Jiles. Stream buffers provide a convenient way to use a block of memory for formatting output and buffering input. Here is the diagram shown on the first page of 12:
istream
ostream
streambuf
fstream
strstream
The three classes istrstream, ostrstream, and strstreambuf are defined in the <strstream> header. An is trs tream object is an input string stream that is attached to an ordinary char * string. The object works like an ordinary input stream (like tin) except that when the extraction operator >> is applied to it, data is read from its attached char * string instead of the keyboard. Similarly, an ostrstream object is an output string stream that is also attached to a char* string. It works like an ordinary output stream (like tout) except that when the insertion opera tor << is applied to it, data is sent to its attached string instead of the display screen. The next example illustrates these classes. String streams are useful for buffering input and output. Input from tin can be piped into an input string stream, and then examined and validated before processing the data that it receives. Similarly, output can be formatted in an output sting stream before it is sent to tout. This is sometimes called incore formatting.
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