ssrs qr code header file defines the i f s tream class which must be instantiated to read in Software

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header file defines the i f s tream class which must be instantiated to read
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#include #include #include
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ciostream.h> cfstream.h> cstdlib.h>
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// defines tout stream // defines ofstream class // defines exit0 function
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main0 .i ifstream infile("grades.dat", ios::in); if (!infile) { cerr CC "Error: input file could not be opened.\n"; exit(l); char id[9], name[16]; int grade, sum = 0, count = 0; while (infile >> id >> name >> grade) { sum += grade; ++count; J infile.close(); tout cc 'The grade average is ' CC float(sum
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/count CC endl;
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This works like the previous example. Note how the inf i 1 e stream is used to control the whi 1 e loop the same way that the tin stream was used in the previous example.
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A file can be opened for both input and output simultaneously in C++. This is illustrated in Example 14.9 which modifies an existing text file by capitalizing all of its lowercase characters.
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EXAMPLE 14.9 Modifying a Text File
This program capitalizes all the characters in a text file. It gets the name of the text file from the command line argument argv [ 1 ] which passes it to the f s tream constructor to open the file as iof ile: #include #include #include main(int cfstream.h> cstdlib.h> cctype.h> // defines ofstream class // defines exit0 function // defines islower(), toupper functions
argc, char** argv)
fstream iofile(argv[l], ios::in I ios::out); if (!iofile) { cerr CC "Error: file could not be opened.\n"; exit(l); char c; while ((c = iofile.get()) != EOF) if (islower( { iofile.seekp(-1, ios::cur); iofile.put(toupper(c)); > iofile.close();
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Note that the logical expression i o s : : in I i o s : : out is used to open io f i 1 e for both input and output. This allows the file to be modified character-by-character. The modification is done by applying the seekp ( > and put ( > functions to io f i le. The call ios: : cur) uses the parameter -1 to backup over the character just read so that it could read or write it again. Then the call io f i 1 e . put ( toupper ( c ) ) replaces that character with the capitalized version of the character c.
iofile.seekp(-1,
Suppose that the following file named Gettysburg . tx t has been prepared:
Gettysburg.txt Fourscore and seven years ago our fathers brought forth upon this continent a new nation, conceived in liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal.
If the name of the executable program is capi tal i z e, then the command
capitalize Gettysburg.txt
would transform that file into
Gettysburg.txt FOURSCORE AND SEVEN YEARS AGO OUR FATHERS BROUGHT FORTH UPON THIS CONTINENT A NEW NATION, CONCEIVED IN LIBERTY, AND DEDICATED TO THE PROPOSITION THAT ALL MEN ARE CREATED EQUAL.
In this case the command line parameter argc has the value 2, and the string array argv has the values "capitalize" for argv [0] and "Gettysburg.txt" for argv[l].
14.7 THE STANDARD TEMPLATE LIBRARY
Table 14.1 shows the Standard C++ Library as three groups of header files. The third group is known as the Standard Template Library. This is a collection of 48 headers that define a large number of general-purpose container class templates together with iterator classes and generic algorithms for manipulating them. The library is remarkable for its efficiency, consistency, and elegance. It was developed at Hewlett-Packard by Alexander Stepanov and Meng Lee. Example 14.10 shows how to use the Standard Template Library to merge two lists. Some implementations may require c s t 1. h> to be included instead of c 1 is t . h>.
EXAMPLE 14.10 Merging Two STL Lists
The c 1 i s t . h> header file defines the 1 i s t class template including its iterators and algorithms. This uses the merge algorithm to merge two integer lists:
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#include #include
<iostream.h> <list.h>
// defines tout stream // defines list and iterator classes
int al[3] = { 22, 44, 88 }; int a2[4] = { 33, 55, 77, 99 }; listAnt> ll(a1, al + 3); list<int> 12(a2, a2 + 4); ll.merge(l2); for (list-Ant>: :iterator it = ll.begin(); it != ll.end(); it++) tout << *it << ' '; tout << endl; 22 33 44 55 77 88 99
We first set up the two arrays al and ai to be used to initialize the lists 11 and 12. Notice how the name of the array is used as a pointer to locate the begining and ending of the array for the list constructor: al is the address of the first element and al + 3 is the address of the memory location immediately after the third element. Notice how the for loop works the same way with an iterator as it would with an ordinary integer index: the iterator is initialized with it = 11. begin ( ) , it is incremented with i t + +, and it controls the loop with the condition i t ! = 11. end ( ) .
The STL defines seven general container class templates: deque, vet tor, 1 is t, set, and mu1 timap. A deque is a sequential structure that allows insertions and deletions at two ends. A vector is a direct generalization of an ordinary array, allowing indexed access. A list is a sequential structure that allows efficient insertions and deletions in the middle of the sequence. A set is an unstructured collection of unique elements. A multiset (also called a bag) is an unstructured collection of elements that need not be unique. A map (also called a dictionary or table) is a set whose elements have two parts: the key and the data. A multimap is the same as a map, except that the keys need not be unique. An ordinary telephone directory is a good example of a multimap, where the keys are the subscribers names and the data are their addresses and telephone numbers. An inverted directory where the unique telephone numbers are the keys would be an example of a map. Maps and multimaps can be regarded as sets and multisets, respectively, except that the elements have two components: a key field and a data field. The key type must have an ordering, so string and double could be key types, but complex and set couldnot. There are certain operations which one would like to apply to any container object: find the first element; find the last element; determine how many elements are in the container; insert an element; remove an element. The STL defines these operations as member functions that work the same way on all containers. They are summarized in Table 14.3. Here, a and b are container objects, -t is a value of the container s template type, n is a nonnegative integer, and p, i, and j are iterators on the container. The STL is a tightly woven system of classes, iterators, and algorithms. Its designers have been very successful in implementing the diverse behavior of container classes in a consistent and intuitive way. This is indicated by the functions listed in Table 14.3 and Table 14.4.
map, mu1 tiset,
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