add qr code to ssrs report THE E-FORMAT FOR FLOATING-POINT VALUES in Software

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3.10 THE E-FORMAT FOR FLOATING-POINT VALUES
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When input or output, floating-point values may be specified in either of two formats: fixedpoint and scientific. The output in Example 3.16 illustrates both: 3 3 3 .3 3 3 has fixed-point format, and - 5 .6 8 4 3 4 e- 14 has scientific format. In scientific format, the letter e stands for exponent on 10. So - 5 .6 8 4 3 4e- 14 means -5.68434 x lo-14, which equals -0.0000000000000568434. Obviously, the scientific format is more efficient for very small or very large numbers. Floating-point values with magnitude in the range 0.1 to 999,999 will normally be printed in fixed-point format; all others will be printed in scientific format.
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EXAMPLE 3.18 Scientific Format
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This program shows how floating-point values may be input in scientific format:
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#include <iostream.h> main0 .t double x; tin >> x; tout << "Enter float: "; "Its reciprocal is: ' << l/x << endl; tout <<
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You can use either e or
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3.11 CONSTANTS,
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in the scientific format.
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AND OBJECTS
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VARIABLES,
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An object is a contiguous region of memory that has an address, a size, a type, and a value. The address of an object is the memory address of its first byte. The size of an object is simply the number of bytes that it occupies in memory. The value of an object is the constant determined by the actual bits stored in its memory location and by the object s type which prescribes how those bits are to be interpreted.
CHAP. 31
ITERATION AND FLOATING TYPES
For example, with GNU C++ on a UNIX workstation, the object n defined by
int n = 22;
has the memory address 0x3 f f f cd6, the size 4, the type int, and the value 22. (The memory address is a hexadecimal number. See Appendix G.) The type of an object is determined by the programmer. The value of an object may also be determined by the programmer at compile time, or it may be determined at run-time. The size of an object is determined by the compiler. For example, in GNU C++ an int has size 4, while in Borland C++ its size is 2. The address of an object is determined by the computer s operating system at run-time. Some objects do not have names. We will see examples of such anonymous objects in s 4 and 5. A variable is an object that has a name. The object defined above is a variable with name n'. The word variable is used to suggest that the object s value can be changed. An object whose value cannot be changed is called a constant. Constants are declared by preceding its type specifier with the keyword cons t, like this:
const int n = 22;
Constants must be initialized when they are declared.
EXAMPLE 3.19 The cons t Specifier
This program illustrates constant definitions:
main0 -t const const int n const const
char BEEP = '\b'; int MAXINT = 2147483647; = MAXINT/2; float KM PER MI = 1.60934; double PT = 5.14159265358979323846;
Constants are usually defined for values like n that will be used more than once in a program but not changed. It is customary to use all capital letters in constant identifiers to distinguish them from other kinds of identifiers. A good compiler will replace each constant symbol with its numeric value.
3.12 GENERATING PSEUDO-RANDOM NUMBERS
One of the most important applications of computers is the simdation of real-world systems. Most high-tech research and development is heavily dependent upon this technique for studying how systems work without actually having to interact with them directly. Simulation requires the computer generation of random numbers to model the uncertainty of the real world. Of course, computers cannot actually generate truly random numbers because computers are detewninistic: given the same input, the same computer will always produce the same output. But it is possible to generate numbers that appear to be randomly generated; i.e.,
ITERATION
FLOATING
TYPES
[CHAP. 3
numbers that are uniformly distributed within a given interval and for which there is no discernible pattern. Such numbers are called pseudo-random numbers. The Standard C header file <S tdl ib . h> defines the function rand ( > which generates pseudo-random integers in the range 0 to RAND - M A X , which is a constant that is also defined in cs tdl ib . h>. Each time the rand ( ) function is called, it generates another unsigned integer in this range.
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