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Draw QR Code in Software Another Version of the Hello World Program

EXAMPLE 1.4 Another Version of the Hello World Program
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This version of our Hello World program has the same output as the other versions: #include ciostream.h> // This program illustrates the ouput of strings and characters: main0 1 tout CC "Hello, ' CC 'WI -CC lo' CC "rfl C-C "ld" C-C '.' << '\n'; return 0; Hello, World. I He 11 o and
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The single statement in this program sends seven objects to tout: the 2 string literals 1 ld1 ,andthe5characterconstants 'w', IO , 'r', I. l,and '\n'.
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Of course, an individual character can also be used to form a string. The single statement above could be replaced by
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tout CC "Hello, " CC "W"
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1' r " << " Id"
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This statement sends 7 string literals to tout. But when dealing with individual characters as separate objects, it is more efficient to use character: constants. String literals are stored differently and require some overhead. The string that contains zero characters is called the empty string and is denoted by I II. We could print our message using the empty string, like this: tout << "Hello, Wo" CC "" << '2-1" << "" << " -CC "d.\n"; But there s not much point in using the empty string this way. 1.4 STRING LENGTH The length of a string literal is the number of characters it contain. The string literal " ABCDE " has length 5. C++ provides a special predefined function named s trlen ( > that you can use to obtain the length of any string. This is illustrated by the next example.
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C H A P .
INTRODUCTION TO PROGRAMMING IN C++
EXAMPLE 1.5
This program prints the lengths of several string literals: #include <iostream.h>
#include <string.h> // This program tests the strlen() function: main0 1 tout << strlen("Hello, World.\n") << '\n'; tout cc strlen("Hello, World.") << '\n'; tout << strlen("Hello, ") << '\n'; tout << strlen("H") << '\n'; tout << strlen("") << '\n'; return 0; >
2.4 13 : 7 I'.. o-.
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The s t rl en ( ) function simply counts the number of characters in the specified string. The first two outputs, 14 and 13, reveal that the nedine character \n counts as a single character. The string "Hello, I has length 7, the string I H I has length 1, and the empty string I I has length 0.
The s tr len ( > function (pronounced stir-1en ) is declared in the separate file s tring . h which comes with the C++ programming environment. So when your program needs to use the s trl en ( > function it should include the # include directive
#include <string.h>
on a line somewhere above the main ( > program block.
1.5 COMMENTS
You can include messages in your program that will be ignored by the compiler. Such a message, intended only to be read by humans, is called a comment. There are two kinds of comments in C++. The Standard C comment begins with the combination slash-star symbol / * and ends with the star-slash symbol * /. Anything written between these two symbols will be ignored by the compiler. For example, this is a comment:
/* This is a C style comment */
The Standard C+ + comment begins with a double-slash / / and extends to the end of the line. For example, this is a comment:
// This is a C++ style comment
Most C++ programmers prefer to use the double-slash form because it is easier to write and easier to notice in a program. The C style comment is necessary if you need to imbed a comment within an executable line of code, but that practice that is not recommended.
INTRODUCTION TO PROGRAMMING IN C++
[CHAP. 1
EXAMPLE 1.6 Using The Two Types of Comments
Here is our Hello World program with six comments added:
/******************************************************************\ * * Program to demonstrate comments * * Written by J. R. Hubbard * * June 10, 1996 * * Version 1.5 \******************************************************************/ // This directive is needed to use tout #include <iostream.h> // This prints message: "Hello, World.": main0 /* now printing */ "Hello, World.\n"; /* change */ tout << // Some compilers will complain if you omit this line return 0; /* end of program */
This is a good example of an overly documented program. But it does illustrate some of the main uses of comments. The first comment is a 6-line header that identifies the program and programmer. Notice that the first two characters (at the beginning of line 1) are the slash-star / * and the last two characters on line 6 are the star-slash * /. The second comment begins with the double-slash on line 7. It illustrates a standard inline comment, positioned to the right of the statement that it describes. The third comment occupies all of line 8. It precedes the main ( > block and briefly describes what the program does. The fourth comment is imbedded inside the output statement. This is not recommended. The fifth comment is at the end of the output statement. It illustrates a common technique of software maintenance: the programmer leaves a message to himself to suggest a possible modification at a later date. The sixth comment, at the end of the program, has little value.
The next example shows our Hello, World. program with only C++-style comments:
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