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void printArray(const double a[], const int n) 1 for (int i = 0; i < n;j++) tout << '\t' << i CC ": 'I -c-c a[i] << endl; 1
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Note how the functions are called getArray(a,n); printArray(a,n); they are passed the array s name a and an integer variable n. Also note that the for loop in the input function prevents the user from entering more than size numbers into the array. The input function getArray ( ) changes the formal parameter size, so it is passed by reference. The formal parameter a is passed the address of the first element in the array, and this address is not changed, so a is passed by value. Since a is the name of an array (indicated by a [ ] ), the function can still change the values of the array s elements. The output function printArray ( ) makes no changes to its parameters, so they are designated in the parameter list as cons t.
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EXAMPLE 5.7 The sum Functions
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// Returns the sum of the first n elements of the specified array: double sum(const double a[], const int n) double s = 0.0; for (int i = 0; i < n; i++) s += a[i]; return s;
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Like the printArray ( ) function in Example 5.10, this function does not change the values of its parameters, so each is passed as a cons t. 5.5 C++ DOES NOT CHECK THE RANGE OF AN ARRAY INDEX
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In some programming languages, an index variable will not be allowed to go beyond the bounds set by the array s definition. For example, in Pascal, if an array a is defined to be indexed from 0 to 4, then the reference a [ 5 1 will cause the program to crash. This security mechanism is not present in C++ (or C). As the next example shows, the index variable may run far beyond its defined range without any error being detected by the computer.
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EXAMPLE 5.8 Index Out of Range
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This run of the previous test driver tries to sum the first 30 elements of a 5-element array:
The array only has 5 elements. Once the index variable i exceeds the value 4 in the function s for loop, the reference a [ i ] is accessing memory cells that are not part of the array. Their contents are unpredictable. In this run, the function adds the 5 elements to get a sum of 275.75, and then continues to add another 25 garbage values. The 30 numbers add up to 8.10012 x 10257, without any indication from the computer that anything is wrong.
It is the programmer s responsibility to ensure that index values are kept in range. In some cases, the computer will let you know if the index is out of range. The next example shows what could happen on a UNIX workstation if the index gets too far out of range.
EXAMPLE 5.9 Segmentation Fault
On this run, the index is so far out of range that it goes beyond that part of memory allocated to the running program:
_ : _ .. ., .
This run-time error message means that the system has tried to access part of memory that lies outside the segment allocated to the process that is currently running.
The next example shows one way that the programmer can protect against range errors.
EXAMPLE 5.10 Protecting against Range Errors // Returns the sum of the first n elements of the specified array: double sum(const double a[], const int n) -t if (n*sizeof(double) > sizeof( return 0; double s = 0.0; for (int i = 0; i c n; i++) s += a[i]; return s;
This function first checks the size of the parameter n. Since s i z eo f ( double > returns the size of the array s elements, n will be out of range precisely when n* s i zeo f ( double > > s i z eo f ( a ) . In this case, the function returns 0, signalling that it cannot compute the requested sum. 5.6 THE LINEAR SEARCH ALGORITHM
Computers are probably used more for the storage and retrieval of information than for any other purpose. Data is often stored in a sequential structure such as an array. The simplest way
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