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The box represents the variable s storage location in memory. The variable s name is on the left of the box, the variable s address is above the box, and the variable s type is below the box. If the value of the variable is known, then it is shown inside the box:
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The value of a variable is accessed by means of its name For example, we can print the value of n with the statement
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The address of a variable is accessed by means of the address operator SC. ror example, we can print the address of n with the statement
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The address operator 6c operates on the variable s name to produce its address. It has precedence level 15 (see Appendix C) which is the same level as the logical NOT operator ! and pre-increment operator + +.
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EXAMPLE 6.1 Printing Pointer Values This shows how both the value and the address of a variable can be printed:
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main0 -t int n = 33; tout << Yt = H C-C n CC endl; tout << "Q-2 = H C-C &n -CC endl; > 157
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// print the value of n // print the address of n
POINTERS AND REFERENCES
[CHAP. 6
The output looks like this:
n = 33 &M = ck3fffdZ4
You can tell that the second output 0x3 f f f d14 is an address by the OX prefix for hexadecimal format. This address is equal to the decimal number 67,10&l 16. (See Appendix G.) Displaying the address of a variable this way is not very useful. The address operator SC has other more important uses. We saw one use in 4: designating reference parameters in a function declaration. That use is closely tied to another: declaring reference variables.
6.2 REFERENCES
A reference is an alias, a synonym for another variable. It is declared by using the reference operator SC appended to the reference s type.
EXAMPLE 6.2 Using References
Here r is declared to be a reference for n:
main0 int n = 33; int& r = n; tout C-C "n = - -W tout << "n = r *= 20 I tout C-C 'n =
// r is a reference for n U -CC n -KC 'I, r = ' << r << endl; H -K-C n << ', r = ' << r << endl; ", r = ' << r CC endl;
H -CC n -C-C
The two identifiers n and r are different names for the same variable: they always have the same value. Decrementing n changes both n and r to 32. Doubling r increases both n and r to 64.
EXAMPLE 6.3 References Are Aliases
This shows that r and n have the same memory address:
main0 int n = 33; int& r = n; tout << "&n = ' -CC &n << ', &r = ' CC &r C-K endl; &n = 0x3fffdl.4, &r = 0x3EEfdl4 ,. . . _.
CHAP. 61
POINTERS AND REFERENCES
The following diagram illustrates how references work:
Ox3fffd14
r33)
The value 33 is stored only once. The identifiers n and r are both symbolic names for the same memorylocation 0~3fffd14. Like a cons t, a reference must be initialized when it is declared. That requirement should seem reasonable: a synonym must have a something for which it is an alias. In other words, every reference must have a referent. Reference parameters were defined for functions in 4. We see now that they work the same way as reference variables: they are merely synonyms for other variables. Indeed, a reference parameter for a function is really just a reference variable whose scope is limited to the function. We have seen that the ampersand character 6c has several uses in C++: when used as a prefix to a variable name, it returns the address of that variable; when used as a suffix to a type in a variable declaration, it declares the variable to be a synonym for the variable to which it is initialized; and when used as a suffix to a type in a function s parameter declaration, it declares the parameter to be a reference parameter for the variable that is passed to it. All of these uses are variations on the same theme: the ampersand refers to the address at which the value is stored. 6.3 POINTERS The reference operator SC returns the memory address of the variable to which it is applied. We used this in Example 6.1 to print the address. We can also store the address in another variable. The type of the variable that stores an address is called a pointer. If the variable has type int, then the pointer variable must have type pointer to in t , denoted by in t * :
EXAMPLE 6.4 Pointer Values Are Addresses main0 int n = 33; int* p = &n; // p holds the address of n tout -KC "n = H -CC n << ", &n = ' << &n << ", p = " -C-C tout << "scp = ' -cc &p << endl;
p C-C endl;
The pointer variable p and the expression &n have the same type (pointer to int) and the same value (0x3 f f f d14). That value is stored at memory location 0x3 f f f dl0:
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