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POINTERS AND REFERENCES
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Example 6.9 shows that when a pointer is incremented, its value is increased by the number size (in bytes) of the object to which it points. For example,
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float a[8]; float* p = a;
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++p;
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// p points to a[O] // increases the value of p by sizeof(float)
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If floats occupy 4 bytes, then + +p; increases the value of p by 4, and p += 5 ; increases the value of p by 20. This is how an array can be traversed: by initializing a pointer to the first element of the array and then repeatedly incrementing the pointer. Each increment moves the pointer to the next element of the array. We can also use a pointer for direct access into the array. For example, we can access a [ 5 ] by initializing the pointer to a [ 0 ] and then adding 5 to it:
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float* p = a; p += 5; // p points to a[O] // now p points to a[51
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So once the pointer is initialized to the starting address of the array, it works like an index.
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WARNING: In C++ it is possible to access and even modify unallocated memory locations. risky and should generally be avoided. For example,
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float a[8]; float* p = a[7]; ++p; *p = 22.2;
This is
// p points to last element in the array // now p points to memory past last element!
// TROUBLE!
The next example shows an even tighter connection between arrays and pointers: the name of an array itself is a cons t pointer to the first element of the array. It also shows that pointers can be compared.
EXAMPLE 6.10 Examining the Addresses of Array Elements main0 short a[] = (22, 33, 44, 55, 66); tout cc "a = " << a << ", *a = ' << *a << endl; for (short* p = a; p < a + 5; p++) tout -cc "p = H << p << II, *p = << *p << endl;
Initially, a and p are the same: they are both pointers to short and they have the same value
(Ox3 f f f d0 8). Since a is a constant pointer, it cannot be increment to traverse the array. Instead, we increment p and use the exit condition p 2 a + 5 to terminate the loop. This computes a + 5 to be the hexadecimal address Ox3fffd08 + 5*sizeof(short) = Ox3fffd08 + 5*2 = Ox3fffd08 + Oxa = 0x3 f f fd12, so the loop continues as long as p c 0x3 f f f d12.
The array subscript operator [ 1 is equivalent to the dereference operator *. They provide direct access into the array the same way:
a[01 == *a
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POINTERS AND REFERENCES
a[l] a[2]
== *(a + 1) == *(a + 2),&C.
So the array a could be traversed like this:
for (int i = 0; i c 8; i++) tout CC *(a + i) CC endl;
The next example illustrates ho& pointers can be combined with integers to move both forward and backward in memory. EXAMPLE 6.11 Pattern Matching In this example, the lot function searches through the first nl elements of array al looking for the string of integers stored in the first n2 elements of array a2 inside it. If found, it returns a pointer to the location within al where a2 begins; otherwise it returns the NULL pointer.
short* loc(short* al, short* a2, int nl, int n2) { short* end1 = al + nl; for (short* pl = al; pl < endl; pl++) if (*pl == *a2) { for (int j = 0; j < n2; j++> if (pl[j] != a2[j]) break; if (j == n2) return pl; return 0;
main0 short a1[9] = (11, 11, 11, 11, 11, 22, 33, 44, 55); short a2[5] = (11, 11, 11, 22, 33); tout << "Array al begins at location\t" CC al CC endl; tout <c "Array a2 begins at location\t" CC a2 CC endl; short* p = loc(a1, a2, 9, 5); if (p> 1 tout << "Array a2 found at location\t" CC p CC endl; for (int i = 0; i < 5; i++) tout CC '\t" << &p[i] << ": ' CC p[i] << " \t" c-c &a2[i] CC ": ' CC a2[i] CC endl; else tout CC "Not found.\n";
'OX3.EfE~22' Arxay al begins at XuCaliOn Ox3,f,ff.dQ$ &rray a2 -begins.at location (jx3fffdiG Array a2 faund at lucatiun 0x3fffd08: .11' .: 'XkxXffdZ6:'lZ .Vx3fEfdOa: 21' ox3fffdf18: 2.9 i. Qx3fEfdQc: 11 OxZlfffdlaz I.1 &igfff~f"j&: 22 Ox3.fffdkc: 22 mc3fffdm: 33 : ck~f~fd9Et: 33
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