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The pattern matching algorithm uses two loops. The outer loop is controlled by the pointer pl which points to elements in array al where the inner loop will begin checking for a match with array a2. The inner loop is controlled by the integer j which is used to compare corresponding elements of the two arrays. If a mismatch is found, the inner loop aborts and the outer loop continues by incrementing pl t o look for a match starting with the next element of al. If the inner loop is allowed to finish, then the condition (II == n2) will be true and the current location pointed to by pl is returned. In the test driver, we verify that the match has indeed been found by checking the actual addresses. 6.8 THE new OPERATOR
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When a pointer is declared like this:
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float* p; // p is a pointer to a float
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it only allocates memory for the pointer itself. The value of the pointer will be some memory address, but the memory at that address is not yet allocated. This means that storage could already be in use by some other variable. In this case, p is uninitialized: it is not pointing to any allocated memory. Any attempt to access the memory to which it points will be an error:
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*p = 3.14159;
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// ERROR: no storage has been allocated for *P
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A good way to avoid this problem is to initialize pointers when they are declared:
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float x = 3.14159; float* p = &x; tout << *p; // x contains the value 3.14159 // p contains the address of x // OK: *p has been allocated
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In this case, accessing *p is no problem because the memory needed to store the float 3.14159 was automatically allocated when x was declared; p points to the same allocated memory. Another way to avoid the problem of a dangling pointer is to allocate memory explicitly for the pointer itself. This is done with the new operator:
float* q; q = new float; *q = 3.14159; // allocates storage for 1 float // OK: *q has been allocated
The new operator returns the address of a block of s unallocated bytes in memory, where s is the size of a float. (Typically, si zeof ( float > is 4 bytes.) Assigning that address to g guarantees that *CJ is not currently in use by any other variables. The first two of these lines can be combined, thereby initializing g as it is declared:
float* q = new float; Note that using the new operator to initialize g only initializes the pointer itself, not the
memory to which it points. It is possible to do both in the same statement that declares the pointer:
float* q = new tout << *q; float(3.14159); // ok: both q and *q have been initialized
In the unlikely event that there is not enough free memory to allocate a block of the required size, the new operator will return o (the NULL pointer):
double* p = new double; // allocator failed: insufficient memory if (P == 0) abort(); else *p = 3.141592658979324; This prudent code calls an abort ( > function to prevent dereferencing the NULL pointer.
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POINTERS AND REFERENCES
Consider again the two alternatives to allocating memory:
float x = 3.14159; float* p = new float(3.14159); // allocates named memory // allocates unnamed memory
In the first case, memory is allocated at compile time to the named variable X. In the second case, memory is allocated at run time to an unnamed object that is accessible through *p.
6.9 THE delete OPERATOR
The delete operator reverses the action of the new operator, returning allocated memory to the free store. It should only be applied to pointers that have been allocated explicitly by the new operator:
float* q = new delete q; *q = 2.71828; float(3.14159); // deallocates q // ERROR: q has been deallocated
Deallocating q returns the block of s i z eo f ( f loa t ) bytes to the free store, making it available for allocation to other objects. Once g has been deallocated, it should not be used again until after it has been reallocated. A deallocated pointer, also called a dangling pointer, is like an uninitialized pointer: it doesn t point to anything. A pointer to a constant cannot be deleted:
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