microsoft reporting services qr code changes the value of n to 66. We can visualize the effect of this assignment as in Software

Creating QR in Software changes the value of n to 66. We can visualize the effect of this assignment as

changes the value of n to 66. We can visualize the effect of this assignment as
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In C++, a declaration may appear anywhere within the program, as the next example shows.
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EXAMPLE 1.9
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This example shows that a variable may be declared anywhere in a C++ program:
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#include ciostream.h> // This program illustrates variable declarations: main0 t int x, yl; // declares the variables x and yl X = 77; Yl = 88; int y2 = 55; // declares the variable y2, initializing it to 55 tout << x << ", " << yl << II, 'I -C-C y2 -C-C endl; return 0; > 77, 88, 55
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The variable y2 is declared and initialized after the assignment for yl. We can visualize these three objects like this:
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Note that a variable cannot be used before it is declared. In this book, we use boldface in a program to emphasize the part(s) of the program that are being illustrated by the example. When you copy the program to run it, ignore the boldface. The last example also shows how more than one variable may be declared within the same declaration statement. The statement
int x, yl;
CHAP. l]
INTRODUCTION TO PROGRAMMING IN C++
declares both x and ~1 to be integer variables. In general, any number of variables may be declared within the same declaration statement, if they are all declared to have the same type. The more general syntax is
type varl, var2, . . . . varN;
The variables are simply listed after their type. Commas separate the variables in the list. 1.7 KEYWORDS AND IDENTIFIERS In any programming language, a program is made up of individual syntactic elements, called tokens. These include variable names, constants, keywords, operators, and punctuation marks.
EXAMPLE 1.10 #include -&ostream.h> // A simple program to main0 -t int n = 66; tout C-C n CC endl; return 0;
illustrate
tokens:
This program shows 15 tokens: main, (, ), {, int, n, =, 66, ;, tout, CC, endl, return, 0, and } . The token n is a variable; the tokens 6 6, 0, and end1 are constants; the tokens int and return are keywords; tokens = and CC are operators; the tokens ( , > , { , ; , and } are punctuation marks. The first two lines, containing a preprocesser directive and a comment, are not really part of the program.
Keywords are also called reserved words because they are words that are reserved by the language for special purposes and cannot be redefined for use as variables or for any other purpose. An identifier is a string of alphanumeric characters that begins with an alphabetic character. There are 53 alphabetic characters: the 52 letters and the underscore character . There are 63 alphanumeric characters: the 53 alphabetic characters and the 10 digits (0, ly2, . . . , 9). so main(), int, n, count, and end1 are identifiers. So are Stack, xl, ~4, LastName, and the-day-after-tomorrow. Note that C++ is case-sensitive: it distinguishes uppercase letters from lowercase letters, so stack and stack are different identifiers. Identifiers are used to name things, like variables and functions. In the program above, main is the name of a function, int is the name of a type, n and tout are names of variables, and end1 is the name of a constant. Some identifiers like int are called keywords because they are an intrinsic part of the programming language itself. (The 48 keywords that define the C++ programming language are shown in Appendix B.) Other identifiers like n are defined in the program itself.
INTRODUCTION TO PROGRAMMING IN C++
[CHAP. 1
INITIALIZING
DECLARATION
A variable is initialized by assigning it a value when it is declared.
EXAMPLE 1.11 Initializing Variables
This simple program illustrates two ways that a variable can be initialized within its declaration:
#include <iostream.h> // This shows how to initialize variable as they are declared: main0 int george = 44; int martha = 33; int sum = george + martha; tout C-C george -CC ' + ' CC martha return 0;
C-C ' = ' -CC sum << endl;
The variables george and martha are initialized to 44 and 33 within their declarations. Then within the declaration of the variable sum, the expression george + martha is evaluated as 44 + 33, and the resulting value 77 is assigned to sum.
An initialization is nearly the same as an assignment. Both use the equal sign by an expression. The expression is first evaluated, and then its value is assigned to the left of the assignment operator. In general, it is better to initialize variables when they are declared.
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