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[CHAP. 7
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7.6 CHARACTER FUNCTIONS DEFINED IN cctype.
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Example 7.7 illustrates the toupper ( > function. This is one of a series of character manipulation function defined in the CC type. h> header file. These are summarized in Table 7.1.
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Table 7.1
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isalnum() isalpha iscntrl() isdigit isgraph islower isprint ispunct() int isalnum(int
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cctype. h> Functions
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c); c); c); c); c); c); c); c);
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Returns nonzero if c is an alphabetic or numeric character; otherwise returns 0.
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int isalpha(int int int int iscntrl(int isdigit(int isgraph(int
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Returns nonzero if c is an alphabetic character; otherwise returns 0. Returns nonzero if c is a control character; otherwise returns 0. Returns nonzero if c is a digit character; otherwise returns 0. Returns nonzero if c is any non-blank printing character; otherwise returns 0.
int islower(int int int isprint(int ispunct(int
Returns nonzero if c is a lowercase alphabetic character; otherwise returns 0. Returns nonzero if c is any printing character; otherwise returns 0. Returns nonzero if c is any printing character, except the alphabetic characters, the numeric characters, and the blank; otherwise returns 0.
isspace int isspace(int c);
Returns nonzero if c is any white-space character, including the blank I I, the form feed I\ f 1, the newline I \n I , the carriage return I\ r 1, the horizontal tab I\ t 1, and the vertical tab I \v I ; otherwise returns 0.
isupper isxdigit() int int isupper(int isxdigit(int c); c);
Returns nonzero if c is an uppercase alphabetic character; otherwise returns 0. Returns nonzero if c is one of the 10 digit characters or one of the 12 hexadecimal digitletters: 'a', lb', 'cl, Id', 'e', 'f I, 'A', B , Cl, ID , El, o r IF ; otherwise returns 0.
tolowerint tolower(int c);
Returns the lowercase version of c if c is an uppercase alphabetic character; otherwise returns c.
toupper ( ) int toupper(int c);
Returns the uppercase version of c if c is a lowercase alphabetic character; otherwise returns c.
Note that these functions receive an int parameter c and they return an int. This works because char is an integer type. Normally, a char is passed to the function and the return value is assigned to a char, so we regard these as character-modifying functions.
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STRINGS
Here is a diagram that summarizes most of the CC type. h> functions:
isprint isgraph isalnum iscntrl <formfeed> <newline> <carriage return> <horizontal tab> <vertical tab> <bell> <backspace>
isalpha isdigit
[o-9)
ispunct
It shows, for example, that if ch is the character I$ I, then isprint (ch) , isgraph (ch) , and ispunctkh) will return nonzero (i.e., true ), while isalnumkh), isalpha (ch), and i s lower ( ch ) will return zero (i.e., false ) 7.7 ARRAYS OF STRINGS Recall that a two-dimensional array is really a one-dimensional array whose components themselves are one-dimensional arrays. When those component arrays are strings, we have an array of strings. Example 7.10 declares the two-dimensional array name as
char name[4][20];
This declaration allocates 80 bytes, arranged like this:
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19
Each of the 4 rows is a one-dimensional array of 20 characters and therefore can be regarded as a character string. These strings are accessed as name [ 0 I , name[l], name[2],andname[3].In the sample run shown in Example 7.10, the data would be stored like this:
012 3 4 5 6 7
10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19
OGeorge Washington@ 4onn Adams@ 2Thomas Jefferson@
Tl 3
Here, the symbol Q, represents the
character I\
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[CHAP. 7
EXAMPLE 7.10 An Array of Strings
This program reads in a sequence of strings, storing them in an array, and then prints them:
main0 -I char name[8][24]; int count = 0; tout cc "Enter at most 8 names with at most 23 while (cin.getline(name[count++], 24)) --count; tout cc "The names are:\n"; for (int i = 0; i c count; i++) tout CC "\t" CC i CC ". [" CC name[i]
characters:\n";
cc "1" CC endl;
Note that all the activity in the whi 1 e loop is done within its control condition:
cin.getline(name[count++],20)
This call to the c in. get 1 ine ( > function reads the next line into name [count 1 and then increments count . The function returns nonzero (i.e., true ) if it was successful in reading a character string into name [count]. When the end-of-file is signalled (with <Control-D> or <Control-Z>), the tin. getline 0 function fails, so it returns 0 which stops the whi 1 e loop. The body of this loop is empty, indicated bY the line that contains nothing but a semicolon.
A more efficient way to store strings is to declare an array of pointers:
char* name[4];
Here, each of the 4 components has type char* which means that each name I: i ] is a string. This declaration does not initially allocate any storage for string data. Instead, we need to store all the data in a buffer string. Then we can set each name [ i 1 equal to the address of the first character of the corresponding name in the buffer. This is done in Example 7.11. This method is more efficient because each component of name [ i 1 uses only as many bytes as are needed to store the string (plus storage for one pointer). The trade-off is that the input routine needs a sentinel to signal when the input is finished.
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