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CHAP. 71
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EXAMPLE 7.11 A String Array
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. This program illustrates the use of the get 1 ine ( ) function with the sentinel character I$ 1 It is nearly equivalent to that in Example 7.10. It reads a sequence of names, one per line, terminated by the sentinel 1$ 1. Then it prints the names which are stored in the array name:
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main0 .I char buffer[80]; cin.getline(buffer,80,'$'); char* name[4]; name[O] = buffer; int count = 0; for (char* p = buffer; *p != '\O'; p++) if (*p == '\n') { *p = '\O'; // end name[count] name[++count] = p+l; // begin next name > tout c-c 'The names are:\&'; for (int i = 0; i c count; i++) tout CC "\t' CC i CC ". [" -CC name[i] CC "1" CC endl;
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The entire input is stored in buffer as the single string containing George Washington\nJohn Adams \nThomas Jeff erson\n". The for loop then scans through buffer using the pointer p. Each time p finds the I \n I character, it terminates the string in name [ count ] by appending the NUL character I\ 0 I to it. Then it increments the counter count and stores the address p+ 1 of the next characterin name[count]. The resulting array name looks like this:
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Note that the extra bytes that padded the ends of the names in Example 7.10 are not required here.
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If the strings being stored are known at compile time, then the string array described above is quite a bit simpler to handle. Example 7.12 illustrates how to initialize a string array.
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EXAMPLE 7.12 Initializing a String Array
This program is nearly equivalent to those in the previous two examples. It initializes the string array name and then prints its contents: main0
char* name[] = { 'George Washington", "John Adams", "Thomas Jefferson"
1 ; tout cc "The names are:\n";
for (int i = 0; i < 3; i++) tout C< "\t" CC i CC ". [" cc name[i] CC '1" c< endl;
The storage of the data in the name array here is the same as in Example 7.11. 7.8 THE C-STRING HANDLING LIBRARY
The C header file c string . h>, also called the C-String Library, includes a family of functions that are very useful for manipulating strings. Example 7.13 illustrates the simplest of these functions, the string length function, which returns the length of the string passed to it.
EXAMPLE 7.13 The String Length Function s tr len ( )
This program is a simple test driver for the s tr 1 en ( > function. The call s t r 1 en ( s > simply returns the number of characters in s that precede the first occurrence of the NUL character I\ 0 I:.
#include main0 char tout tout char tout tout cstring.h>
s[] = "ABCDEFG"; << 'strlen(" cc s cc ') = " cc strlen(s) <C endl; << "strlen(\"\") = " cc strlen(" ") CC endl; buffer[80]; cc "Enter string: "; tin >> buffer; << "strlen(" cc buffer cc ") = ' cc strlen(buffer) cc endl;
In some ways, strings behave like fundamental objects (i.e., integers and reals). For example, they can be output to tout in the same way. But strings are structured objects, composed of
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smaller pieces (characters). So many of the operations that are provided for fundamental objects, such as the assignment operator (=), the comparison operators (<, >, = =, < =, >=, and ! =), and the arithmetic operators ( +, etc.) are not available for strings. Some of the functions in the C String Library simulate these operations. In 8 we will learn how to write our own versions of these operations. The next example illustrates three other string functions. These are used to locate characters and substrings within a given string.
EXAMPLE 7.14 The strchr ( ), strrchr ( ), and strstr ( ) Functions #include main0 <string.h>
char s[] = "The Mississippi is a long river."; tout << "s = \"I << s << "\"\n"; char* p = strchr(s, ' '); tout << "strchr(s, ' ') points to s[" << p - s CC "].\n"; p = strchr(s, Is'); tout << "strchr(s, 's') points to s[' << p - s << "].\n"; Is'); P = strrchr(s, tout << "strrchr(s, 's') points to s[' CC p - s CC "].\n"; p = strstr(s, "is"); tout << "strstr(s, \"is\") points to s[' CC p - s CC "].\n"; p = strstr(s, "isi"); if (P == NULL) tout << "strstr(s, \"isi\") returns NULL\n";
Thecall strchr(s, ' I> returns a pointer to the first occurrence of the blank character I I within the string s. The expression p - s computes the index (offset) 3 of this character within the string. (Remember that arrays used zero-based indexing, so the initial character IT I has index 0.) Similarly, the character I s I first appears at index 6 in s. Thecall strrchr(s, ' I > returns a pointer to the last occurrence of the character Is I within the string s; this is s [17]. Thecall strstr(s, I is I ) returns a pointer to the first occurrence of the substring I i s I within the string s; this is at s [5]. The call strstr (s, " i s i " ) returns the NULL pointer because does not occur anywhere within the string s.
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