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9.4 THE STANDARD C++ string TYPE Standard C++ defines its string type in the <string> header file. Objects of type string can be declared and initialized in several ways: string s1; // s1 contains 0 characters string s2 = "New York"; // s2 contains 8 characters string s3(60, '*'); // s3 contains 60 asterisks string s4 = s3; // s4 contains 60 asterisks string s5(s2, 4, 2); // s5 is the 2-character string "Yo" If the string is not initialized, like s1 here, then it represents the empty string containing 0 characters. A string can be initialized the same way a C-string is, like s2 here. Or a string can be initialized to hold a given number of the same character, like s3 here which holds 60 stars. Unlike a C-string, C++ string objects can be initialized with a copy of another existing string object, like s4 here, or with a substring of an existing string, like s5 . Note that the standard substring designator has three parts: the parent string (s2, here), the starting character (s2[4], here), and the length of the substring (2, here). Formatted input works the same way for C++ strings as it does for C-strings: preceding whitespace is skipped, and input is halted at the end of the first whitespace-terminated word. C++ strings have a getline() function that works almost the same way as the cin.getline() function for C-strings:
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string s = "ABCDEFG"; getline(cin, s); char c = s[2]; s[4] = '*'; // reads the entire line of characters into s // assigns 'C' to c // changes s to "ABCD*FG"
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They also use the subscript operator the same way that C-strings do: Note that the array index always counts how many characters precede the indexed character. C++ strings can be converted to C-strings like this:
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const char* cs = s.c_str(); // converts s into the C-string cs The c_str() function has return type const char*. The C++ string class also defines a length() function that can be used like this to determine how many characters are stored in a string: cout << s.length() << endl; // prints 7 for the string s == "ABCD*FG" C++ strings can be compared using the relational operators like fundamentals types: if (s2 < s5) cout << "s2 lexicographically precedes s5\n"; while (s4 == s3) //... You can also concatenate and append strings using the + and += operators: string s6 = s + "HIJK"; // changes s6 to "ABCD*FGHIJK" s2 += s5; // changes s2 to "New YorkYo" The substring() function is used like this: s4 = s6.substr(5,3); // changes s4 to "FGH"; The erase() and replace() function work like this: s6.erase(4, 2); // changes s6 to "ABCDGHIJK" s6.replace(5, 2, "xyz"); // changes s6 to "ABCDGxyzJK" The find() function returns the index of the first occurrence of a given substring: string s7 = "Mississippi River basin"; cout << s7.find("si") << endl; // prints 3 cout << s7.find("so") << endl; // prints 23, the length of the string If the find() function fails, it returns the length of the string it was searching.
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EXAMPLE 9.5 Using the Standard C++ string Type
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This code adds a nonsense syllable after each t that precedes a vowel. For example, the sentence The first step is to study the status of the C++ Standard. is replaced by the sentence: The first stegep is tego stegudy the stegatus of the C++ Stegandard. It uses an auxiliary boolean function named is_vowel(): string word; int k; while (cin >> word) { k = word.find("t") + 1; if (k < word.length() && is_vowel(word[k])) word.replace(k, 0, "eg"); cout << word << ' '; } The while loop is controlled by the input, terminating when the end-of-file is detected. It reads one word at a time. If the letter t is found and if it is followed by a vowel, then e.g. is inserted between that t and the vowel.
9.5 FILES File processing in C++ is very similar to ordinary interactive input and output because the same kind of stream objects are used. Input from a file is managed by an ifstream object the same way that input from the keyboard is managed by the istream object cin. Similarly, output to a file is managed by an ofstream object the same way that output to the monitor or printer is managed by the ostream object cout. The only difference is that ifstream and ofstream objects have to be declared explicitly and initialized with the external name of the file which they manage. You also have to #include the <fstream> header file (or <fstream.h> in pre-Standard C++) that defines these classes. EXAMPLE 9.6 Capitalizing All the Words in a Text File
Here is a complete program that reads words from the external file named input.txt, capitalizes them, and then writes them to the external file named output.txt: #include <fstream> #include <iostream> using namespace std; int main() { ifstream infile("input.txt"); ofstream outfile("output.txt"); string word; char c; while (infile >> word) { if (word[0] >= 'a' && word[0] <= 'z') word[0] += 'A' - 'a'; outfile << word; infile.get(c); outfile.put(c); } }
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