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which is then assigned to x.num, and the formal parameter d is given the default value 1 which is then assigned to x.den. In the declaration of the object y where only the value 4 is passed, the formal parameter n is given that value 4 which is then assigned to y.num, and the formal parameter d is given the default value 1 which is then assigned to y.den. No default values are used in the declaration of z.
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10.5 ACCESS FUNCTIONS Although a class s member data are usually declared to be private to limit access to them, it is also common to include public member functions that provide read-only access to the data. Such functions are called access functions. (In Java, they are also called getty methods, because they usually use the word get in their names. This is in contrast to setty methods which are used to change the values of data members and use the word set in their name. Getty methods are read-only; setty methods are read-write.) EXAMPLE 10.7 Access Functions in the Ratio Class
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class Ratio { public: Ratio(int n=0, int d=1) : num(n), den(d) { } int numerator() const { return num; } int denominator() const { return den; } private: int num, den; }; int main() { Ratio x(22,7); cout << x.numerator() << '/' << x.denominator() << endl; } The functions numerator() and denominator() return the values of the private member data. Note the use of the const keyword in the declarations of the two access functions. This allows the functions to be applied to constant objects. (See Section 10.9.)
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10.6 PRIVATE MEMBER FUNCTIONS Class member data are usually declared to be private and member functions are usually declared to be public. But this dichotomy is not required. In some cases, it is useful to declare one or more member functions to be private. As such, these functions can only be used within the class itself; i.e., they are local utility functions. EXAMPLE 10.8 Using private Member Functions
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class Ratio { public: Ratio(int n=0, int d=1) : num(n), den(d) { reduce(); } void print() const { cout << num << '/' << den << endl; } private:
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int num, den; void reduce(); }; int gcd(int,int); void Ratio::reduce() { // enforce invariant(den > 0): if (num == 0 || den == 0) { num = 0; den = 1; return; } if (den < 0) { den *= -1; num *= -1; } // enforce invariant(gcd(num,den) == 1): if (den == 1) return; // it's already reduced int sgn = (num<0 -1:1); // no negatives to gcd() int g = gcd(sgn*num,den); num /= g; den /= g; } int gcd(int m, int n) { // returns the greatest common divisor of m and n: if (m<n) swap(m,n); while (n>0) { int r=m%n; m = n; n = r; } return m; } int main() { Ratio x(100,-360); x.print(); } -5/18
This version includes the private function reduce() that uses the gcd() function (see Problem 5.18 on page 113) to reduce the fraction num/den to lowest terms. Thus the fraction 100/ 360 is stored as 5/18. Instead of having a separate reduce() function, we could have done the actual reduction within the constructor. But there are two good reasons for doing it this way. Combining the construction with the reduction would violate the software principle that separate tasks should be handled by separate functions. Moreover, the reduce() function will be needed later to reduce the results of arithmetic operations performed on Ratio objects.
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Note that the keywords public and private are called access specifiers; they specify whether the members are accessible outside the class definition. The keyword protected is the third access specifier. It is described in 13. 10.7 THE COPY CONSTRUCTOR Every class has at least two constructors. These are identified by their unique declarations:
X(); // default constructor X(const X&); // copy constructor where X is the class identifier. For example, these two special constructors for a Widget class
would be declared:
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