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So the difference between a class and a C++ struct is really just cosmetic. 10.11 POINTERS TO OBJECTS In many applications, it is advantageous to use pointers to objects (and structs). Here is a simple example: EXAMPLE 10.12 Using Pointers to Objects
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class X { public: int data; }; int main() { X* p = new X; (*p).data = 22; // equivalent to: p->data = 22; cout << "(*p).data = " << (*p).data << " = " << p->data << endl; p->data = 44; cout << " p->data = " << (*p).data << " = " << p->data << endl; } (*p).data = 22 = 22 p->data = 44 = 44 Since p is a pointer to an X object, *p is an X object, and (*p).data accesses its public member data. Note that parentheses are required in the expression (*p).data because the direct member selection operator . has higher precedence than the dereferencing operator * . (See Appendix C.)
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have the same meaning. When working with pointers, the arrow symbol -> is preferred because it is simpler and it suggests the thing to which p points. Here is a more important example: EXAMPLE 10.13 A Node Class for Linked Lists
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class Node { public: Node(int d, Node* q=0) : data(d), next(q) { } int data; Node* next; }; This defines a Node class each of whose objects contain an int data member and a next pointer. int main() { int n; Node* p;
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Node* q=0; while (cin >> n) { p = new Node(n, q); q = p; } for ( ; p; p = p->next ) cout << p->data << " -> "; cout << "*\n"; } 22 33 44 55 66 77 ^D 77 -> 66 -> 55 -> 44 -> 33 -> 22 -> *
First note that the definition of the Node class includes two references to the class itself. This is allowed because each reference is actually a pointer to the class. Also note that the constructor initializes both data members. The program allows the user to create a linked list in reverse. Then it traverses the list, printing each data value. The while loop continues reads ints into n until the user enters the end-of-file character (Ctrl+D). Within the loop, it gets a new node, inserts the int into its data member, and connects the new node to the previous node (pointed to by q). Finally, the for loop traverses the list, beginning with the node pointed to by p (which is the last node constructed) and continuing until p is NUL. The list constructed in this example can be visualized like this:
10.12 STATIC DATA MEMBERS Sometimes a single value for a data member applies to all members of the class. In this case, it would be inefficient to store the same value in every object of the class. That can be avoided by declaring the data member to be static. This is done by including the static keyword at the beginning of the variable s declaration. It also requires that the variable be defined globally. So the syntax looks like this:
class X { public: static int n; }; int X::n = 0; // definition of n // declaration of n as a static data member
Static variables are automatically initialized to 0, so the explicit initialization in the definition is unnecessary unless you want it to have a non-zero initial value.
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EXAMPLE 10.14 A static Data Member
The Widget class maintains a static data member count which keeps track of the number of Widget objects in existence globally. Each time a widget is created (by the constructor) the counter is incremented, and each time a widget is destroyed (by the destructor) the counter is decremented. class Widget { public: Widget() { ++count; } ~Widget() { --count; } static int count; }; int Widget::count = 0;
int main() { Widget w, x; cout << "Now there are " { Widget w, x, y, z; cout << "Now there are } cout << "Now there are " Widget y; cout << "Now there are " } Now there are 2 widgets. Now there are 6 widgets. Now there are 2 widgets. Now there are 3 widgets.
<< w.count << " widgets.\n"; " << w.count << " widgets.\n"; << w.count << " widgets.\n"; << w.count << " widgets.\n";
Notice how four widgets are created inside the inner block, and then they are destroyed when program control leaves that block, reducing the global number of widgets from 6 to 2.
A static data member is like an ordinary global variable: only one copy of the variable exists no matter how many instances of the class exist. The main difference is that it is a data member of the class, and so may be private. EXAMPLE 10.15 A static Data Member that is private
class Widget { public: Widget() { ++count; } ~Widget() { --count; } int numWidgets() { return count; } private: static int count; }; int Widget::count = 0; int main() { Widget w, x; cout << "Now there are " << w.numWidgets() << " widgets.\n"; { Widget w, x, y, z;
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