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: _x( x ) , _y( y ), _radius( radius) {} Circle( const Circle & C ) { _x = C._x ; _y = C._y ; _radius = C._radius; } float diameter() const { return 2.0 * _radius ; } float area() const { return 3.141592654 * _radius * _radius ; } float circumference() const { return 3.141592654 * diameter() ; } void print() const { cout << "Center is at ( " << _x << " , " << _y << " ) and " << "Radius = " << _radius ; } private: float _x ; float _y ; float _radius ; };
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11.1 INTRODUCTION C++ includes a rich store of 45 operators. They are summarized in Appendix C. These operators are defined automatically for the fundamental types (int, float, etc.). When you define a class, you are actually creating a new type. Most of the C++ operators can be overloaded to apply to your new class type. This chapter describes how to do that. 11.2 OVERLOADING THE ASSIGNMENT OPERATOR Of all the operators, the assignment operator = is probably used the most. Its purpose is to copy one object to another. Like the default constructor, the copy constructor, and the destructor, the assignment operator is created automatically for every class that is defined. But also like those other three member functions, it can be defined explicitly in the class definition. EXAMPLE 11.1 Adding an Assignment Operator to the Ratio Class
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Here is a class interface for the Ratio class, showing the default constructor, the copy constructor, and the assignment operator: class Ratio { public: Ratio(int =0, int =1); // default constructor Ratio(const Ratio&); // copy constructor void operator=(const Ratio&); // assignment operator // other declarations go here private: int num, den; }; Note the required syntax for the assignment operator. The name of this member function is operator=. Its argument list is the same as that of the copy constructor: it contains a single argument of the same class, passed by constant reference. Here is the implementation of the overloaded assignment operator: void Ratio::operator=(const Ratio& r) { num = r.num; den = r.den; } It simply copies the member data from the object r to the object that owns the call.
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11.3 THE this POINTER C++ allows assignments to be chained together, like this:
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x = y = z = 3.14;
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CHAP. 11]
OVERLOADING OPERATORS
This is executed first by assigning 3.14 to z, then to y, and finally to x. But, as Example 11.1 shows, the assignment operator is really a function named operator=. In this chain, the function is called three times. On its first call, it assigns 3.14 to z, so the input to the function is 3.14. On its second call, it assigns 3.14 to y, so its input again must be 3.14. So that value should be the output (i.e., return value) of the first call. Similarly, the output of the second call should again be 3.14 to serve as the input to the third call. The three calls to this function are nested, like this:
f(x, f(y, f(z, 3.14)))
The point is that the assignment operator is a function that should return the value it assigns. Therefore, instead of the return type void, the assignment operator should return a reference to the same type as the object being assigned:
Ratio& operator=(const Ratio& r)
This allows assignments to be chained together. EXAMPLE 11.2 The Preferred Prototype for an Overloaded Assignment Operator
class Ratio { public: Ratio(int =0, int =1); Ratio(const Ratio&); Ratio& operator=(const Ratio&); // other declarations go here private: int num, den; // other declarations go here };
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