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// default constructor // copy constructor // assignment operator
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The preferred syntax for the prototype of an overloaded assignment operator in a class T is
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T& operator=(const T&);
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The return type is a reference to an object of the same class T. But then this means that the function should return the object that is being assigned in order for the assignment chain to work. So when the assignment operator is being overloaded as a class member function, it should return the object that owns the call. Since there is no other name available for this owner object, C++ defines a special pointer, named this, which points to the owner object. We can envision the this pointer like this:
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this num den 22 7
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Ratio
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Now we can give the correct implementation of the overloaded assignment operator: EXAMPLE 11.3 Implementation of the Assignment Operator for the Ratio Class
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Ratio& Ratio::operator=(const Ratio& r) { num = r.num; den = r.den; return *this; }
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OVERLOADING OPERATORS
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[CHAP. 11
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Now assignments for the Ratio class can be chained together: Ratio x, y, z(22,7); x = y = z;
The correct implementation for an overloaded assignment operator in a class T is
T& T::operator=(const T& t) { // assign each member datum of t to the // corresponding member datum of the owner return *this; }
Finally, note that an assignment is different from an initialization, even though they both use the equals sign:
Ratio x(22,7); Ratio y(x); Ratio z = x; Ratio w; w = x; // this is an initialization // this is an initialization // this is an initialization // this is an assignment
An initialization calls the copy constructor. An assignment calls the assignment operator. 11.4 OVERLOADING ARITHMETIC OPERATORS All programming languages provide the standard arithmetic operators +, -, *, and / for numeric types. So it is only natural to define these for user-defined numeric types like the Ratio class. In older programming languages like C and Pascal, this is done by defining functions like this:
Ratio product(Ratio x, Ratio y) { Ratio z(x.num*y.num, x.den*y.den); return z; }
This works. But the function has to be called in the conventional way:
z = product(x,y);
C++ allows such functions to be defined using the standard arithmetic operator symbols, so that they can be called more naturally:
z = x*y;
Like most operators in C++, the multiplication operator has a function name that uses the reserved word operator: its name is operator* . Using this in place of product in the code above, we would expect the overloaded function to look something like this:
Ratio operator*(Ratio x, Ratio y) { Ratio z(x.num*y.num, x.den*y.den); return z; }
But this is not a member function. If it were, we would have to set it up as in with only one argument. The operator* function requires two arguments. Since the overloaded arithmetic operators cannot be member functions, they cannot access the private member data num and den. Fortunately, C++ allows an exception to this rule so that we can complete our definitions of the overloaded arithmetic functions. The solution is to declare the function as a friend of the Ratio class.
TeamLRN
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OVERLOADING OPERATORS
A friend function is a nonmember function that is given access to all members of the class within which it is declared. So it has all the privileges of a member function without actually being a member of the class. This attribute is used mostly with overloaded operators. EXAMPLE 11.4 Declaring the Multiplication Operator as a friend Function
Here is the Ratio class declaration with the overloaded multiplication operator declared as a friend function: class Ratio { friend Ratio operator*(const Ratio&, const Ratio&); public: Ratio(int =0, int =1); Ratio(const Ratio&); Ratio& operator=(const Ratio&); // other declarations go here private: int num, den; // other declarations go here }; Note that the function prototype is inserted inside the class declaration, above the public section. Also note that the two arguments to the function are both passed by constant reference. Now we can implement this nonmember just as we had expected: Ratio operator*(const Ratio& x, const Ratio& y) { Ratio z(x.num * y.num, x.den * y.den); return z; } Note that the keyword friend is not used in the function implementation. Also note that the scope resolution prefix Ratio:: is not used because this is not a member function.
Here is a little program that uses our improved Ratio class: EXAMPLE 11.5 The Ratio Class with Assignment and Multiplication Operators
#include "Ratio.h" int main() { Ratio x(22,7), y(-3,8), z; z = x; z.print(); cout << endl; x = y*z; x.print(); cout << endl; } 22/7 -33/28
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