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Note that the reduce() function was called from within the constructor to reduce -66/56 to -33/58. (See Example 10.8 on page 238.)
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11.5 OVERLOADING THE ARITHMETIC ASSIGNMENT OPERATORS C++ allows you to combine arithmetic operations with the assignment operator; for example, using x *= y in place of x = x * y. These combination operators can all be overloaded for use in your own classes. EXAMPLE 11.6 The Ratio Class with an Overloaded *= Operator
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class Ratio { public: Ratio(int =0, int =1); Ratio& operator=(const Ratio&); Ratio& operator*=(const Ratio&); // other declarations go here private: int num, den; // other declarations go here }; Ratio& Ratio::operator*=(const Ratio& r) { num = num*r.num; den = den*r.den; return *this; } The operator operator*= has the same syntax and nearly the same implementation as the basic assignment operator operator=. By returning *this, the operator can be chained, like this: x *= y *= z; It is also important to ensure that overloaded operators perform consistently with each other. For example, the following two lines should have the same effect, even though they call different operators: x = x*y; x *= y
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11.6 OVERLOADING THE RELATIONAL OPERATORS The six relational operators <, >, <=, >=, ==, and != can be overloaded the same way that the arithmetic operators are overloaded: as friend functions. EXAMPLE 11.7 Overloading the Equality Operator == in the Ratio Class
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Like other friend functions, the equality operator is declared above the public section of the class: class Ratio { friend bool operator==(const Ratio&, const Ratio&); friend Ratio operator*(const Ratio&, const Ratio&); // other declarations go here public: Ratio(int =0, int =1); Ratio(const Ratio&); Ratio& operator=(const Ratio&); // other declarations go here
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private: int num, den; // other declarations go here }; bool operator==(const Ratio& x, const Ratio& y) { return (x.num * y.den == y.num * x.den); } The test for equality of two fractions a/b and c/d is equivalent to the test a*d == b*c. So we end up using the equality operator for ints to define the equality operator for Ratio s. Note that the relational operators return an int type, representing either true (1) or false (0).
11.7 OVERLOADING THE STREAM OPERATORS C++ allows you to overload the stream insertion operator >> for customizing input and the stream deletion operator << for customizing output. Like the arithmetic and relational operators, these should also be declared as friend functions. For a class T with data member d, the syntax for the output operator is
friend ostream& operator<<(ostream& ostr, const T& t) { return ostr << t.d; } Here, ostream is a standard class defined (indirectly) in the iostream.h header file. Note
that all the parameters and the return value are passed by reference. This function can then be called using the same syntax that we used for fundamental types:
cout << "x = " << x << ", y = " << y << endl;
Here is an example of how custom output can be written: EXAMPLE 11.8 Overloading the Output Operator << for the Ratio Class
class Ratio { friend ostream& operator<<(ostream&, const Ratio&); public: Ratio(int n=0, int d=1) : num(n), den(d) { } // other declarations go here private: int num, den; // other declarations go here }; int main() { Ratio x(22,7), y(-3,8); cout << "x = " << x << ", y = " << y << endl; } ostream& operator<<(ostream& ostr, const Ratio& r) { return ostr << r.num << '/' << r.den; } x = 22/7, y = -3/8 When the second line of main() executes, the expression cout << "x = " executes first. This calls the standard output operator <<, passing the standard output stream cout and the string "x = " to it. As usual, this inserts the string into the output stream and then returns a reference to cout . This return value is then passed with the object x to the overloaded << operator. This call to operator<< executes with cout in place of ostr and with x in place of r. The result is the execution of the line
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