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The same rule applies to member functions. If a function named f() is defined in X and another function named f() with the same signature is defined in Y, then y.f() invokes the latter function, and y.X::f() invokes the former. In this case, the local function y.f() overrides the f() function defined in X unless it is invoked as y.X::f(). These distinctions are illustrated in the following example. EXAMPLE 12.6 Dominating a Data Member and Overriding a Member Function
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Here are two classes, X and Y, with Y inheriting from X. class X { public: void f() { cout << "X::f() executing\n"; } int a; };
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class Y : public X { public: void f() { cout << "Y::f() executing\n"; } // overrides X::f() int a; // dominates X::a }; But the members of Y have the same signatures as those in X. So Y s member function f() overrides the f() defined in X, and Y s data member a dominates the a defined in X. Here is a test driver for the two classes: int main() { X x; x.a = 22; x.f(); cout << "x.a = " << x.a << endl; Y y; y.a = 44; // assigns 44 to the a defined in Y y.X::a = 66; // assigns 66 to the a defined in X y.f(); // invokes the f() defined in Y y.X::f(); // invokes the f() defined in X cout << "y.a = " << y.a << endl; cout << "y.X::a = " << y.X::a << endl; X z = y; cout << "z.a = " << z.a << endl; } X::f() executing x.a = 22 Y::f() executing X::f() executing y.a = 44 y.X::a = 66 z.a = 66 Here, y has access to two different data members named a and two different functions f(). The defaults are the ones defined in the derived class Y. The scope resolution operator :: is used in the form X:: to override the defaults to access the corresponding members defined in the parent class X. When the X object z is initialized with y, its X members are used: z.a is assigned the value y.X::a. This diagram illustrates the three objects x, y, and z:
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Example 12.6 and most of the remaining examples in this chapter are designed to illustrate the intricacies of inheritance. They are not intended to exemplify common programming practice. Instead, they focus on specific aspects of C++ which can then be applied to more general and practical situations. In particular, the method of dominating data members as illustrated in Example 12.6 is rather unusual. Although it is not uncommon to override function members, dominating data members of the same type is rare. More common would be the reuse of the same data name with a different type, like this:
class Y : public X { public: double a; // the data member a in class X had type int }
In an inheritance hierarchy, default constructors and destructors behave differently from other member functions. As the following example illustrates, each constructor invokes its parent constructor before executing itself, and each destructor invokes its parent destructor after executing itself: EXAMPLE 12.7 Parent Constructors and Destructors
class X { public: X() { cout << "X::X() constructor executing\n"; } ~X() { cout << "X::X() destructor executing\n"; } }; class Y : public X { public: Y() { cout << "Y::Y() constructor executing\n"; } ~Y() { cout << "Y::Y() destructor executing\n"; } }; class Z : public Y { public: Z(int n) { cout << "Z::Z(int) constructor executing\n"; } ~Z() { cout << "Z::Z() destructor executing\n"; } }; int main() { Z z(44); } When z is declared, the Z::Z(int) constructor is called. Before executing, it calls the Y::Y() constructor which immediately calls the X::X() constructor. After the X::X() constructor has finished executing, control returns to the Y::Y() constructor which finishes executing. Then finally the Z::Z() constructor finishes executing. The effect is that all the parent default constructors execute in top-down order.
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