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COMPOSITION AND INHERITANCE
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[CHAP. 12
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CDCs would have its own implementation of the eat() function, the 11 CDCs of the Mammal class would have their own implementation of the suckle() function, and the 2 CDCs of the Primate class would have their own implementation of the peel() function.
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An ABC is typically defined during the first stages of the process of developing a class hierarchy. It lays out the framework from which the details are derived in the ABC s subclasses. Its pure virtual functions prescribe a certain uniformity within the hierarchy.
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EXAMPLE 12.13 A Hierarchy of Media Classes
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Here is a hierarchy of classes to represent various media objects:
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Media Audio Book Periodical
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CD Tape Record Magazine Newspaper Journal Newsletter
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The primary ABC is the Media class: class Media { public: virtual void print() =0; virtual char* id() =0; protected: string title; }; It has two pure virtual functions and one data member. Here is the concrete Book subclass: class Book : Media { public: Book(string a="", string t="", string p="", string i="") : author(a), publisher(p), isbn(i) { title = t; } void print() { cout << title << " by " << author << endl; } char* id() { return isbn; } private: string author, publisher, isbn; }; It implements the two virtual functions using its own member data. Here is the concrete CD subclass: class CD : Media { public: CD(string t="", string c="", string m="", string n="") : composer(c), make(m), number(n) { title = t; } void print() { cout << title << ", " << composer << endl; } char* id() { return make + " " + number; } private: string composer, make, number; }; The CD class will also be a CDC of the Audio class, which will be another ABC. So when the Audio class is defined, its pure virtual functions will also have to be implemented in this CD class.
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CHAP. 12]
COMPOSITION AND INHERITANCE
Here is the concrete Magazine subclass: class Magazine : Media { public: Magazine(string t="", string i="", int v=0, int n=0) : issn(i), volume(v), number(n) { title = t; } void print() { cout << title << " Magazine, Vol. " << volume << ", No." << number << endl; } char* id() { return issn; }; private: string issn, publisher; int volume, number; }; The Magazine class will also be a CDC of the Periodical class, which will be another ABC. So when the Periodical class is defined, its pure virtual functions will also have to be implemented in this Magazine class. Here is a test driver for the four classes defined above: int main() { Book book("Bjarne Stroustrup", "The C++ Programming Language", "Addison-Wesley", "0-201-53992-6"); Magazine magazine("TIME", "0040-781X", 145, 23); CD cd("BACH CANTATAS", "Johann Sebastian Bach", "ARCHIV", "D120541"); book.print(); cout << "\tid: " << book.id() << endl; magazine.print(); cout << "\tid: " << magazine.id() << endl; cd.print(); cout << "\tid: " << cd.id() << endl; } The C++ Programming Language by Bjarne Stroustrup id: 0-201-53992-6 TIME Magazine, Vol. 145, No.23 id: 0040-781X BACH CANTATAS, Johann Sebastian Bach id: ARCHIV D120541 Note that all the calls to the print() and id() functions are independent of their class implementations. So the implementations of these functions could be changed without making any changes to the program. For example, we could change the Book::print() function to void print() { cout << title << " by " << author << ".\nPublished by " << publisher << ".\n"; } and obtain the output
The C++ Programming Language by Bjarne Stroustrup. Published by Addison-Wesley.
without any changes to the program.
COMPOSITION AND INHERITANCE
[CHAP. 12
12.10 OBJECT-ORIENTED PROGRAMMING Object-oriented programming refers to the use of derived classes and virtual functions. A thorough treatment of object-oriented programming is beyond the scope of this book. See the books [Bergin], [Perry], and [Wang] listed in Appendix H for a more thorough treatment. Suppose that you have three televisions, each equipped with its own video cassette recorder. Like most VCRs, yours are loaded with features and have confusing user manuals. Your three VCRs are all different, requiring different and complex operations to use them. Then one day you see on the shelf of your local electronics store a simple remote controller that can operate all kinds of VCRs. For example, it has a single RECORD button that causes whatever VCR it is pointed at to record the current TV program on the current tape. This marvelous device represents the essence of object-oriented programming ( OOP ): conceptual simplification of diverse implementations by means of a single interface. In this example, the interface is the remote controller, and the implementations are the (hidden) operations within the controller and the individual VCRs that carry out the requested functions ( RECORD , STOP , PLAY , etc.). The interface is the abstract base class below:
class VCR { public: virtual virtual virtual virtual virtual };
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