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print(a,9); sort(a,9); print(a,9); string s[7] = {"Tom", "Hal", "Dan", "Bob", "Sue", "Ann", "Gus"}; print(s,7); sort(s,7); print(s,7); } Here, both sort() and print() are function templates. The type parameter T is replaced by the type short in the first calls and by the class string in the second calls.
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A function template works like an outline. The compiler uses the template to generate each version of the function that is needed. In the previous example, the compiler produces two versions of the sort() function and two versions of the print() function, one each for the type short and one each for the class string . The individual versions are called instances of the function template, and the process of producing them is called instantiating the template. A function that is an instance of a template is also called a template function. Using templates is a form of automatic code generation; it allows the programmer to defer more of the work to the compiler. 13.3 CLASS TEMPLATES A class template works the same way as a function template except that it generates classes instead of functions. The general syntax is
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template<class T,...> class X { ... };
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As with function templates, a class template may have several template parameters. Moreover, some of them can be ordinary non-type parameters:
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template<class T, int n, class U> class X { ... };
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Of course, since templates are instantiated at compile time, values passed to non-type parameters must be constants:
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template<class T, int n> class X {}; int main() { X<float, 22> x1; const int n = 44; X<char, n> x2; int m = 66; X<short, m> x3; }
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// OK // OK // ERROR: m must be constant
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Class templates are sometimes called parameterized types. The member functions of a class template are themselves function templates with the same template header as their class. For example, the function f() declared in the class template
template<class T> class X { T square(T t) { return t*t; } };
is handled the same way that the following template function would be handled:
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TEMPLATES AND ITERATORS
template<class T> T square(T t) { return t*t; }
It is instantiated by the compiler, replacing the template parameter T with the type passed to it. Thus, the declaration
X<short> x;
generates the class and object
class X_short { short square(short t) { return t*t; } }; X_short x;
except that your compiler may use some name other than X_short for the class. EXAMPLE 13.3 A Stack Class Template
A stack is a simple data structure that simulates an ordinary stack of objects of the same type (e.g., a stack of dishes) with the restrictions that an object can be inserted into the stack only at the top and an object can be removed from the stack only at the top. In other words, a stack is a linear data structure with access at only one end. A stack class abstracts this notion by hiding the implementation of the data structure, allowing access only by means of public functions that simulate the limited operations described above. Here is a class template for generating Stack classes: template<class T> class Stack { public: Stack(int s = 100) : size(s), top(-1) { data = new T[size]; } ~Stack() { delete [] data; } void push(const T& x) { data[++top] = x; } T pop() { return data[top--]; } int isEmpty() const { return top == -1; } int isFull() const { return top == size - 1; } private: int size; int top; T* data; }; This definition uses an array data to implement a stack. The constructor initializes the size of the array, allocates that many elements of type T to the array, and initializes its top pointer to 1. The value of top is always one less than the number of elements on the stack, and except when the stack is empty, top is the index in the array of the top element on the stack. The push() function inserts an object onto the stack, and the pop() function removes an object from the stack. A stack isEmpty() when its top has the value -1, and it isFull() when its top pointer has the value size - 1. Here is a program to test the Stack template: int main() { Stack<int> intStack1(5); Stack<int> intStack2(10); Stack<char> charStack(8); intStack1.push(77); charStack.push('A'); intStack2.push(22); charStack.push('E');
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