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charStack.push('K'); intStack2.push(44); cout << intStack2.pop() << endl; cout << intStack2.pop() << endl; if (intStack2.isEmpty()) cout << "intStack2 is empty.\n"; } 44 22 intStack2 is empty. The template has one parameter T which will be used to specify the type of the objects stored on the stack. The first line declares intStack1 to be a stack that can hold up to 5 ints. Similarly, intStack2 is a stack that can hold up to 10 ints, and charStack is a stack that can hold up to 8 chars. After pushing and popping objects on and off the stacks, the last line calls the isEmpty() function for intStack2. At that instant, the two Stack classes and three Stack objects look like this:
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Stack<int> Stack() ~Stack() push() pop() isEmpty() isFull() intStack1 size top 5 0 intStack2 size top 10 -1 Stack<char> Stack() ~Stack() push() pop() isEmpty() isFull() charStack size top 8 2
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1 2 3 4 Stack<int>
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1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Stack<int>
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The call intStack2.isEmpty() returns 1 (i.e., true ) because intStack2.top has the value 1 at that moment. Note that there are two instances of the Stack class template: Stack<int> and Stack<char>. These are distinct classes, each generated by the compiler. Each class has its own six distinct member functions. For example, the two functions Stack<int>::pop() and Stack<char>::pop() are different: one returns an int and the other returns a char.
13.4 CONTAINER CLASSES A container is simply an object that contains other objects. Ordinary arrays and stacks are containers. A container class is a class whose instances are containers. The Stack<int> and Stack<char> classes in Example 13.3 are container classes. Class templates are natural mechanisms for generating container classes because the contained objects type can be specified using a template parameter. A container is called homogeneous if all of its objects have the same type; otherwise it is called a heterogeneous container. Stacks, arrays, etc., are homogeneous containers.
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TEMPLATES AND ITERATORS
A vector is an indexed sequence of objects of the same type. The word is borrowed from
mathematics where it originally referred to a three-dimensional point x = (x1, x2, x3). Of course, that is just an array of 3 real numbers. The subscripts on the components are the same as the index values on the array, except that in C++ those values must begin with 0. Since subscripts cannot be written in source code, we use the bracket notation [ ] instead. So x[0] represents x1, x[1] represents x2, and x[2] represents x3. EXAMPLE 13.4 A Vector Class Template
template<class T> class Vector { public: Vector(unsigned n=8) : size(n), data(new T[size]) { } Vector(const Vector<T>& v) : size(v.size), data(new T[size]) { copy(v); } ~Vector() { delete [] data; } Vector<T>& operator=(const Vector<T>&); T& operator[](unsigned i) const { return data[i]; } unsigned size() { return size; } protected: T* data; unsigned size; void copy(const Vector<T>&); }; template<class T> Vector<T>& Vector<T>::operator=(const Vector<T>& v) { size = v.size; data = new T[size]; copy(v); return *this; } template<class T> void Vector<T>::copy(const Vector<T>& v) { unsigned min_size = (size < v.size size : v.size); for (int i = 0; i < min_size; i++) data[i] = v.data[i]; } Note that each implementation of a member function must be preceded by the same template designator that precedes the class declaration: template<class T>. This template would allow the following code: Vector<short> v; v[5] = 127; Vector<short> w = v, x(3); cout << w.size(); Here v and w are both Vector objects with 8 elements of type short, and x is a Vector object with 3 elements of type short. The class and its three objects can be visualized from the diagram shown at the top of the next page. It shows the situation at the moment when the member function w.size() is executing. The class Vector<short> has been instantiated from the template, and three objects v,
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