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Vector<short> Vector() Vector() ~Vector() operator=() operator[]() size() copy()
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w, and x have been instantiated from the class. Note that the copy() function is a protected utility function, so it cannot be invoked by any of the class instances. Note that the expression v[5] is used on the left side of an assignment, even though this expression is a function call. This is possible because the subscript operator returns a reference to a Vector<T>, making it an lvalue.
Class templates are also called parametrized types because they act like types to which parameters can be passed. For example, the object b above has type Vector<double>, so the element type double acts like a parameter to the template Vector<T>. 13.5 SUBCLASS TEMPLATES Inheritance works with class templates the same way as with ordinary class inheritance. To illustrate this technique, we will define a subclass template of the Vector class template defined in Example 13.4. EXAMPLE 13.5 A Subclass Template for Vectors
One problem with the Vector class as implemented by the template in Example 13.4 is that it requires zero-based indexing; i.e., all subscripts must begin with 0. This is a requirement of the C++ language itself. Some other programming languages allow array indexes to begin with 1 or any other integer. We can add this useful feature to our Vector class template by declaring a subclass template: template <class T> class Array : public Vector<T> { public: Array(int i, int j) : i0(i), Vector<T>(j-i+1) { } Array(const Array<T>& v) : i0(v.i0), Vector<T>(v) { } T& operator[](int i) const { return Vector<T>::operator[](i-i0); } int firstSubscript() const { return i0; } int lastSubscript() const { return i0+size-1; } protected: int i0; }; This Array class template inherits all the functionality of the Vector class template and also allows subscripts to begin with any integer. The first member function listed is a new constructor that allows the user to designate the first and last values of the subscript when the object is declared. The
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TEMPLATES AND ITERATORS
second function is the copy constructor for this subclass, and the third function is the overloaded subscript operator. The last two functions simply return the first and last values of the subscript range. Note how the two Array constructors invoke the corresponding Vector constructors, and how the Array subscript operator invokes the Vector subscript operator.
Array<float> Array() Array() ~Array() operator=() operator[]() size() Array() firstSubscript() lastSubscript=() copy() x size data
0 1 2
3.14159 0.08516 5041.92
Array<float>
Here is a test driver and a sample run: #include <iostream.h> #include "Array.h"
int main() { Array<float> x(1,3); x[1] = 3.14159; x[2] = 0.08516; x[3] = 5041.92; cout << "x.size() = " << x.size() << endl; cout << "x.firstSubscript() = " << x.firstSubscript() << endl; cout << "x.lastSubscript() = " << x.lastSubscript() << endl; for (int i = 1; i <= 3; i++) cout << "x[" << i << "] = " << x[i] << endl; } x.size() = 3 x.firstSubscript() = 1 x.lastSubscript() = 3 x[1] = 3.14159 x[2] = 0.08516 x[3] = 5041.92
13.6 PASSING TEMPLATE CLASSES TO TEMPLATE PARAMETERS We have already seen examples of passing a class to a template parameter:
Stack<Rational> s; Vector<string> a; // a stack of Rational objects // a vector of string objects
TEMPLATES AND ITERATORS
[CHAP. 13
Since template classes work like ordinary classes, we can also pass them to template parameters:
Stack<Vector<int>> s; Array<Stack<Rational>> a; // a stack of Vector objects // an array of Stack objects
The next example shows how this template nesting can facilitate software reuse. EXAMPLE 13.6 A Matrix Class Template
A matrix is essentially a two-dimensional vector. For example, a 2-by-3 matrix is a table with 2 rows and 3 columns:
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