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14.1 INTRODUCTION Although not as efficient, Standard C++ string objects are more robust than the classic C-strings. They are easier to use and they cause fewer run-time errors. In the same way, Standard C++ vector objects are more robust than ordinary arrays. So vector objects provide a good alternative to arrays. The vector class template is also the prototype for all the container classes in the Standard C++ Library. (See 15.) The vector class template is defined in the <vector> header. EXAMPLE 14.1 Using a vector of strings
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This program creates a vector v of 8 strings and then calls a load() function and a print() function to load and print the vector. #include <iostream> #include <string> #include <vector> using namespace std; void load(vector<string>&); void print(vector<string>); const int SIZE=8;
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int main() { vector<string> v(SIZE); load(v); print(v); } void load(vector<string>& v) { v[0] = "Japan"; v[1] = "Italy"; v[2] = "Spain"; v[3] = "Egypt"; v[4] = "Chile"; v[5] = "Zaire"; v[6] = "Nepal"; v[7] = "Kenya"; } void print(vector<string> v) { for (int i=0; i<SIZE; i++) cout << v[i] << endl; cout << endl; }
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Japan Italy Spain Egypt Chile Zaire Nepal Kenya
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Note that this program could have been written almost the same way using an array of strings: string v[SIZE]; In particular, access by means of the subscript operator v[i] works the same with vectors and arrays.
EXAMPLE 14.2 Using the push_back() and size() Functions
This is the same program as in Example 14.1 except for the changes indicated in boldface: the type identifier strings is used in place of vector<string>, the push_back() function is used instead of assigning elements to v[i], and the size() function is used instead of storing the constant SIZE as a global constant. typedef vector<string> Strings; void load(Strings&); void print(Strings);
int main() { Strings v; load(v); print(v); } void load(Strings& v) { v.push_back("Japan"); v.push_back("Italy"); v.push_back("Spain"); v.push_back("Egypt"); v.push_back("Chile"); v.push_back("Zaire"); v.push_back("Nepal"); v.push_back("Kenya"); } void print(Strings v) { for (int i=0; i<v.size(); i++) cout << v[i] << endl; cout << endl; }
Note that vector v has 0 elements when it is created. Each time the push_back() function is called, it appends the new element to the end of the vector and increments its size. So when the load() function returns, the size of v is 8. The output here is the same as for the program as in Example 14.1.
STANDARD C++ VECTORS
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14.2 ITERATORS ON VECTORS EXAMPLE 14.3 Using vector Iterators
This program defines the type identifier Sit to stand for iterators on vectors of strings. It then uses such an iterator to traverse the vector in the print() function. typedef vector<string> Strings; typedef Strings::iterator Sit; void load(Strings&); void print(Strings);
int main() { Strings v; load(v); print(v); } void print(Strings v) { for (Sit it=v.begin(); it!=v.end(); it++) cout << *it << endl; cout << endl; }
The for loop initializes the iterator it to the beginning of the vector v. The expression *it returns the element located by the iterator. The increment expression it++ advances it to the next element in the vector. When it == v.end(), it has moved to the imaginary position that follows the last element of the vector. That signals that the traversal has finished and stops the loop. The output here is the same as for the program as in Example 14.1.
EXAMPLE 14.4 Using the Generic sort() Algorithm
This uses the sort() function that is defined in the <algorithm> header. (See page 393.) The subsequent call print(v) shows that the strings are sorted alphabetically. int main() { Strings v; load(v); sort(v.begin(),v.end()); print(v); }
Chile Egypt Italy Japan Kenya Nepal Spain Zaire The generic sort() algorithm requires two iterator arguments to indicate what part of the vector is to be sorted. The begin() and end() functions return iterators that locate the begining and ending locations of the vector, so passing these two iterators to sort() indicates that the entire vector is to be sorted.
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