sql reporting services qr code Using the Standard vector<> Class Template in Software

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EXAMPLE 14.10 Using the Standard vector<> Class Template
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Here is a complete C++ program that uses the Standard vector<> class template:: #include <iostream> #include <vector> // defines the Standard vector<T> class template using namespace std; typedef vector<double> Vec;
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typedef vector<bool> Bits; template <class T> void copy(vector<T>& v, const T* x, int n) { vector<T> w; for (int i=0; i<n; i++) w.push_back(x[i]); v = w; } Vec projection(Vec& v, Bits& b) { int v_size = v.size(); assert(b.size() >= v_size); Vec w; for (int i=0; i<v_size; i++) if (b[i]) w.push_back(v[i]); return w; } void print(Vec& v) { int v_size = v.size(); for (int i=0; i<v_size; i++) cout << v[i] << " "; cout << endl; } int main() { double x[8] = { 22.2, 33.3, 44.4, 55.5, 66.6, 77.7, 88.8, 99.9 }; Vec v; copy(v, x, 8); bool y[8] = { false, true, false, true, true, true, false, true }; Bits b; copy(b, y, 8); Vec w = projection(v, b); print(v); print(w); } 22.2 33.3 44.4 55.5 66.6 77.7 88.8 99.9 33.3 55.5 66.6 77.7 99.9
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This illustrates the vector class push_back() and size() member functions. The purpose of the projection(v, b) function is to use the bit vector b as a mask to remove selected elements of the vector v. The resulting vector w is called the projection of v onto the subspace determined by b.
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14.7 RANGE CHECKING The at() member function of the standard vector class template automatically checks the value of the index variable to ensure that it is not out of range. This protection against program failure is not available for ordinary arrays.
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Review Questions
14.1 14.2 What are the main differences between an array and a C++ vector How are vector iterators similar to array indexes
Problems
14.1 Use the find() algorithm to implement and test the following function for vectors of ints:
int frequency(vector<int> v, int x); // returns the number of occurrences of x in v; Use the find() algorithm and the erase() function to implement and test the following function for vectors of ints: void remove_duplicates(vector<int>& v); // removes all duplicates in v; Use the sort() algorithm to implement and test the following function for vectors of floats: float median(vector<float>& v); // returns the middle number among those stored in v;
Implement and test the following conversion functions:
int unsignedValue(BinaryCode bc); // example: if bc has these bit values 1 0 1 0 1 // unsignedValue(bc) returns 21 BinaryCode getUnsignedCode(unsigned n); // returns shortest possible code for n // example: if n = 15 returns the vector with elements 1 1 1 1 int signedValue(BinaryCode bc); // example: if bc has these bit values 1 0 1 1 1 0 // signedValue(bc) returns -30 BinaryCode getSignedCode(int n); // returns shortest possible twosComplement code for n // example: if n = 15 returns the vector with elements 0 1 1 1 1 // if n = -15 returns the vector with elements 1 0 0 0 1
These use the following definitions:
typedef vector<int> BinaryCode; typedef BinaryCode::iterator BCIterator;
Answers to Review Questions
14.1 Some of the main differences between arrays and C++ vectors are: a. An array is declared as string[8] a; // a is an array of 8 strings while a vector is declared as vector<string> v(8); // v is a vector of 8 strings b. The assignment operator is defined for vectors but not for arrays: v = w; // assigns all the elements of the vector w to v
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c. The comparison operators are defined for vectors but not for arrays: if (v == w) // true if the two vectors are equal if (v < w) // uses the lexicographic ordering of vectors d. The size() member function is available for vectors but not for arrays: int n = v.size(); // the number of elements in the vector v e. The at() member function is available for vectors but not for arrays: string v8 = v.at(8); // the element at position 8 A range error exception is thrown if the element does not exist. Some of the main similarities between arrays indexes and vector iterators are: a. Both provide direct read-write access to the elements: x = a[3]; // assigns to x element number 3 x = *it; // assigns to x the element located by it a[3] = 44; // assigns 44 to element number 3 *it = 44; // assigns 44 to the element located by it b. Both can be incremented and decremented. c. Both can be used as a basis for relative positions: x = a[i+3]; // assigns to x the 3rd element after a[i] x = *(it+3); // assigns to x the 3rd element after *it
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