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These show, for example, that if p is true and q is false, then the expression p && q will be false and the expression p || q will be true. The next example solves the same problem that Example 3.5 on page 39 solved, except that it uses compound conditions. EXAMPLE 3.8 Using Compound Conditions
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This program has the same effect as the one in Example 3.5 on page 39. This version uses compound conditions to find the minimum of three integers: int main() { int n1, n2, n3; cout << "Enter three integers: "; cin >> n1 >> n2 >> n3; if (n1 <= n2 && n1 <= n3) cout << "Their minimum is " << n1 <<endl; if (n2 <= n1 && n2 <= n3) cout << "Their minimum is " << n2 <<endl; if (n3 <= n1 && n3 <= n2) cout << "Their minimum is " << n3 <<endl; }
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Enter two integers: 77 33 55 Their minimum is 33
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Note that Example 3.8 is no improvement over Example 3.5. Its purpose was simply to illustrate the use of compound conditions. Here is another example using a compound condition: EXAMPLE 3.9 User-Friendly Input This program allows the user to input either a Y or a y for yes :
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int main() { char ans; cout << "Are you enrolled (y/n): "; cin >> ans; if (ans == 'Y' || ans == 'y') cout << "You are enrolled.\n"; else cout << "You are not enrolled.\n"; }
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Are you enrolled (y|n): N You are not enrolled.
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It prompts the user for an answer, suggesting a response of either y or n. But then it accepts any character and concludes that the user meant no unless either a Y or a y is input.
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3.7 SHORT-CIRCUITING Compound conditions that use && and || will not even evaluate the second operand of the condition unless necessary. This is called short-circuiting. As the truth tables show, the condition p && q will be false if p is false. In that case there is no need to evaluate q. Similarly if p is true then there is no need to evaluate q to determine that p || q is true. In both cases the value of the condition is known as soon as the first operand is evaluated. EXAMPLE 3.10 Short-Circuiting
This program tests integer divisibility: int main() { int n, d; cout << "Enter two positive integers: "; cin >> n >> d; if (d != 0 && n%d == 0) cout << d << " divides " << n << endl; else cout << d << " does not divide " << n << endl; } In this run,d is positive and n%d is zero, so the compound condition is true: Enter two positive integers: 300 6 6 divides 300 In this run, d is positive but n%d is not zero, so the compound condition is false: Enter two positive integers: 300 7 7 does not divide 300 In this run,d is zero, so the compound condition is immediately determined to be false without evaluating the second expression n%d == 0 : Enter two positive integers: 300 0 0 does not divide 300 This short-circuiting prevents the program from crashing because when d is zero the expression n%d cannot be evaluated.
3.8 BOOLEAN EXPRESSIONS A boolean expression is a condition that is either true or false. In the previous example the expressions d > 0, n%d == 0, and (d > 0 && n%d == 0) are boolean expressions. As we have seen, boolean expressions evaluate to integer values. The value 0 means false and every nonzero value means true. Since all nonzero integer values are interpreted as meaning true, boolean expressions are often disguised. For example, the statement
if (n) cout << "n is not zero";
will print n is not zero precisely when n is not zero because that is when the boolean expression (n) is interpreted as true . Here is a more realistic example: