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In these examples, the arguments are passed by value. This means that their values are assigned to the function s corresponding parameters. So in the previous example, the value of m is assigned to x and the value of n is assigned to y. When passed by value, arguments may be constants or general expressions. For example, the max() function could be called by max(44,5*m-n). This would assign 44 to x and the value of the expression 5*m-n to y. EXAMPLE 5.6 The max() Function with Declaration Separate from Definition
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This program is the same test driver for the same max() function as in Example 5.6. But here the function s declaration appears above the main program and the function s definition follows it: int max(int,int); // returns larger of the two given integers:
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int main() { // tests the max() function: int m, n; do { cin >> m >> n; cout << "\tmax(" << m << "," << n << ") = " << max(m,n) << endl; } while (m != 0); } int max(int x, int y) { if (x < y) return y; else return x; } Notice that the formal parameters x and y are listed in the header in the definition (as usual) but not in the declaration.
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Function declarations are very similar to variable declarations, especially if the function has no parameters. For example, in a program that processes strings, you might need a variable named length to store the length of a string. But a reasonable alternative would be to have a function that computes the length of the string wherever it is needed, instead of storing and updating the value. The function would be declared as
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whereas the variable would be declared as
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The only difference is that the function declaration includes the parentheses (). In reality, the two alternatives are quite different, but syntactically they are nearly the same when they are used. In cases like this, one can regard a function as a kind of an active variable; i.e., a variable that can do things. EXAMPLE 5.7 SEPARATE COMPILATION Function definitions are often compiled independently in separate files. For example, all the functions declared in the Standard C++ Library are compiled separately. One reason for separate compilation is information hiding that is, information that is necessary for the complete
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compilation of the program but not essential to the programmer s understanding of the program is hidden. Experience shows that information hiding facilitates the understanding and thus success of large software projects. EXAMPLE 5.8 The max() Function Compiled Separately
This shows one way that the max function and its test driver could be compiled separately. The test driver is in a file named test_max.cpp and the function is in a separate file named max.cpp.
test_max.cpp int max(int,int); // returns larger of the two given integers: int main() { // tests the max() function: int m, n; do { cin >> m >> n; cout << "\tmax(" << m << "," << n << ") = " << max(m,n) << endl; } while (m != 0); }
max.cpp int max(int x, int y) { if (x < y) return y; else return x; }
The actual commands that you would use to compile these files together depend on the system you are using. In UNIX you could do it like this: $ c++ -c max.c $ c++ -c test_max.c $ c++ -o test_max test_max.o max.o $ test_max (Here the dollar sign is the system prompt.) The first command compiles the max function, the second command compiles the test driver separately, the third command links them together to produce the executable module test_max, which is then run by the command on the fourth line.
One advantage of compiling functions separately is that they can be tested separately before the program(s) that call them are written. Once you know that the max function works properly, you can forget about how it works and save it as a black box ready to be used whenever it is needed. This is how the functions in the math library are used. It is the off-the-shelf software point of view. Another advantage of separate compilation is the ease with which one module can be replaced by another equivalent module. For example, if you happen to discover a better way to compute the maximum of two integers, you can compile and test that function and then link that module with whatever programs were using the previous version of the max() function.
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