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float
float&
b 22.2
float
temp 22.2
float
Note that the function declaration void swap(float&, float&); includes the reference operator & for each reference parameter, even though the parameters are omitted. Some programmers write the reference operator & as a prefix to the parameter, like this: void swap(float &x, float &y) instead of as a suffix to its type as done here. That style is more common among C programmers. In C++, we think of x as the parameter and float& as its type. But the compiler will accept float& x, float &x, float & x , or even float&x. It s mostly a matter of taste.
FUNCTIONS
[CHAP. 5
EXAMPLE 5.17 Passing By Value and Passing By Reference
This example shows the difference between passing by value and passing by reference: void f(int,int&); // changes reference argument to 99:;
int main() { // tests the f() function: int a = 22, b = 44; cout << "a = " << a << ", b = " << b << endl; f(a,b); cout << "a = " << a << ", b = " << b << endl; f(2*a-3,b); cout << "a = " << a << ", b = " << b << endl; } void f(int x, int& y) { // changes reference argument to 99: x = 88; y = 99; } a = 22, b = 44 a = 22, b = 99 a = 22, b = 99 The call f(a,b) passes a by value to x and it passes b by reference to y. So x is a local variable that is assigned a s value of 22, while y is an alias for the variable b whose value is 33. The function assigns 88 to x, but that has no effect on a. But when it assigns 99 to y, it is really assigning 99 to b, because y is an alias for b. So when the function terminates, a still has its original value 22, while b has the new value 99. The argument a is read-only, while the argument b is read-write.
Upon the call f(a,b):
f() x 22
main() a 22
int&
b 33
Upon the return:
f() x 88
main() a 22
int&
b 99
The next table summarizes the differences between passing by value and passing by reference.
TeamLRN
CHAP. 5]
FUNCTIONS
Passing By Value Versus Passing By Reference
Passing By Value
int x; int &x;
Passing By Reference The parameter x is a local reference. It is a synonym for the argument.
The parameter x is a local variable. It is a duplicate of the argument. It cannot change the argument. The argument passed by value may be a constant, a variable, or an expression. The argument is read-only.
It can change the argument. The argument passed by reference must be a variable. The argument is read-write.
A common situation where reference parameters are needed is where the function has to return more than one value. It can only return one value directly with a return statement. So if more than one value must be returned, reference parameters can do the job. EXAMPLE 5.18 Returning More than One Value
This function returns two values by using two reference parameters: the area and circumference of a circle whose radius has the given length r: void computeCircle(double& area, double& circumference, double r) { // returns the area and circumference of a circle with radius r: const double PI = 3.141592653589793; area = PI*r*r; circumference = 2*PI*r; } Here is a test driver and output from a sample run: void computeCircle(double&, double&, double); // returns the area and circumference of a circle with radius r;
int main() { // tests the computeCircle() function: double r, a, c; cout << "Enter radius: "; cin >> r; computeCircle(a, c, r); cout << "area = " << a << ", circumference = " << c << endl; } Enter radius: 100 area = 31415.9, circumference = 628.319
Note that the output parameters area and circumference are listed first in the parameter list, to the left of the input parameter r. This standard C style is consistent with the format of assignment statements: y = x, where the information (the value) flows from the read-only variable x on the right to the read-write variable y on the left.
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